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How Do eHMIs Affect Pedestrians’ Crossing Behavior? A Study Using a Head-Mounted Display Combined with a Motion Suit
Open AccessArticle

External Human–Machine Interfaces: The Effect of Display Location on Crossing Intentions and Eye Movements

Department Cognitive Robotics, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg, 2628 CD Delft, The Netherlands
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Information 2020, 11(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/info11010013
Received: 19 November 2019 / Revised: 14 December 2019 / Accepted: 17 December 2019 / Published: 24 December 2019
In the future, automated cars may feature external human–machine interfaces (eHMIs) to communicate relevant information to other road users. However, it is currently unknown where on the car the eHMI should be placed. In this study, 61 participants each viewed 36 animations of cars with eHMIs on either the roof, windscreen, grill, above the wheels, or a projection on the road. The eHMI showed ‘Waiting’ combined with a walking symbol 1.2 s before the car started to slow down, or ‘Driving’ while the car continued driving. Participants had to press and hold the spacebar when they felt it safe to cross. Results showed that, averaged over the period when the car approached and slowed down, the roof, windscreen, and grill eHMIs yielded the best performance (i.e., the highest spacebar press time). The projection and wheels eHMIs scored relatively poorly, yet still better than no eHMI. The wheels eHMI received a relatively high percentage of spacebar presses when the car appeared from a corner, a situation in which the roof, windscreen, and grill eHMIs were out of view. Eye-tracking analyses showed that the projection yielded dispersed eye movements, as participants scanned back and forth between the projection and the car. It is concluded that eHMIs should be presented on multiple sides of the car. A projection on the road is visually effortful for pedestrians, as it causes them to divide their attention between the projection and the car itself. View Full-Text
Keywords: eHMI; eye-tracking; attention distribution; road safety; automated driving; driverless vehicles eHMI; eye-tracking; attention distribution; road safety; automated driving; driverless vehicles
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MDPI and ACS Style

Eisma, Y.B.; van Bergen, S.; ter Brake, S.M.; Hensen, M.T.T.; Tempelaar, W.J.; de Winter, J.C.F. External Human–Machine Interfaces: The Effect of Display Location on Crossing Intentions and Eye Movements. Information 2020, 11, 13. https://doi.org/10.3390/info11010013

AMA Style

Eisma YB, van Bergen S, ter Brake SM, Hensen MTT, Tempelaar WJ, de Winter JCF. External Human–Machine Interfaces: The Effect of Display Location on Crossing Intentions and Eye Movements. Information. 2020; 11(1):13. https://doi.org/10.3390/info11010013

Chicago/Turabian Style

Eisma, Y. B.; van Bergen, S.; ter Brake, S. M.; Hensen, M. T.T.; Tempelaar, W. J.; de Winter, J. C.F. 2020. "External Human–Machine Interfaces: The Effect of Display Location on Crossing Intentions and Eye Movements" Information 11, no. 1: 13. https://doi.org/10.3390/info11010013

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