Next Article in Journal
Hydraulic Stability of the Armor Layer of Overtopped Breakwaters
Next Article in Special Issue
On Air-Cavity Formation during Water Entry of Flexible Wedges
Previous Article in Journal
Climate Change, Coasts and Coastal Risk
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Validation of Symmetric 2D + T Model Based on Single-Stepped Planing Hull Towing Tank Tests
Open AccessArticle

Investigating the Pre-Damaged PZT Sensors under Impact Traction

Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51666-14766, Iran
Department of Design and Mathematics, University of the West of England, Bristol BS16 1QY, UK
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 2, 40136 Bologna, Italy
Institute of Materials and Manufacturing, College of Engineering, Design and Physical Sciences, Brunel University London, UB8 3PN London, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(4), 142;
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 11 November 2018 / Accepted: 11 November 2018 / Published: 19 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Mathematics in Ship Design)
Ships are usually under vibration, impact, and other kinds of static and dynamic loads. These loads arise from water flow across the hull or surfaces, the propeller cavitation, and so on. For optimal design purposes and reliable performance, experimental measurements are necessary. These sensors are often used under or near the water, working conditions that improve the risk of sensor damage. This paper aims at investigating, by the use of finite elements, the behavior of damaged piezoelectric sensors under traction and impact loads. The numerical method was calibrated using results available in the literature regarding piezoelectric and elastic plates with a central crack. After calibration, the simulation was used on two types of Lead-Zirconium-Titanium oxide (PZT) sandwich panel structures reinforced by aluminum skins. The results proved that the damage size and impact energy are important factors affecting the response of piezoelectric sensors; therefore, special attention might be considered when using these sensors for marine applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: piezoelectric sensor; damaged sensor; impact traction; Lead-Zirconium-Titanium (PZT); fracture mechanics; marine industry piezoelectric sensor; damaged sensor; impact traction; Lead-Zirconium-Titanium (PZT); fracture mechanics; marine industry
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Fotouhi, S.; Fotouhi, M.; Pavlovic, A.; Djordjevic, N. Investigating the Pre-Damaged PZT Sensors under Impact Traction. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6, 142.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop