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Review

Efficacy and Safety of COVID-19 Vaccines: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials

1
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
2
John B. Little Center for Radiation Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
3
Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Science, Tehran 1449614535, Iran
4
Department of Family Medicine, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Soo-Hong Lee, Hansoo Park, Jagathesh Chandra Rajendran and K.S. Jaganathan
Vaccines 2021, 9(5), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050467
Received: 5 April 2021 / Revised: 27 April 2021 / Accepted: 28 April 2021 / Published: 6 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Covid Vaccine)
The current study systematically reviewed, summarized and meta-analyzed the clinical features of the vaccines in clinical trials to provide a better estimate of their efficacy, side effects and immunogenicity. All relevant publications were systematically searched and collected from major databases up to 12 March 2021. A total of 25 RCTs (123 datasets), 58,889 cases that received the COVID-19 vaccine and 46,638 controls who received placebo were included in the meta-analysis. In total, mRNA-based and adenovirus-vectored COVID-19 vaccines had 94.6% (95% CI 0.936–0.954) and 80.2% (95% CI 0.56–0.93) efficacy in phase II/III RCTs, respectively. Efficacy of the adenovirus-vectored vaccine after the first (97.6%; 95% CI 0.939–0.997) and second (98.2%; 95% CI 0.980–0.984) doses was the highest against receptor-binding domain (RBD) antigen after 3 weeks of injections. The mRNA-based vaccines had the highest level of side effects reported except for diarrhea and arthralgia. Aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines had the lowest systemic and local side effects between vaccines’ adjuvant or without adjuvant, except for injection site redness. The adenovirus-vectored and mRNA-based vaccines for COVID-19 showed the highest efficacy after first and second doses, respectively. The mRNA-based vaccines had higher side effects. Remarkably few experienced extreme adverse effects and all stimulated robust immune responses. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; vaccines; efficacy; side effect; randomized clinical trial; meta-analysis COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; vaccines; efficacy; side effect; randomized clinical trial; meta-analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pormohammad, A.; Zarei, M.; Ghorbani, S.; Mohammadi, M.; Razizadeh, M.H.; Turner, D.L.; Turner, R.J. Efficacy and Safety of COVID-19 Vaccines: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. Vaccines 2021, 9, 467. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050467

AMA Style

Pormohammad A, Zarei M, Ghorbani S, Mohammadi M, Razizadeh MH, Turner DL, Turner RJ. Efficacy and Safety of COVID-19 Vaccines: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. Vaccines. 2021; 9(5):467. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050467

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pormohammad, Ali, Mohammad Zarei, Saied Ghorbani, Mehdi Mohammadi, Mohammad H. Razizadeh, Diana L. Turner, and Raymond J. Turner 2021. "Efficacy and Safety of COVID-19 Vaccines: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials" Vaccines 9, no. 5: 467. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050467

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