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Role of Vaccine Hesitancy, eHealth Literacy, and Vaccine Literacy in Young Adults’ COVID-19 Vaccine Uptake Intention in a Lower-Middle-Income Country
Article

Race-ethnicity and COVID-19 Vaccination Beliefs and Intentions: A Cross-Sectional Study among the General Population in the San Francisco Bay Area

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Quantitative Sciences Unit, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
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Division of Primary Care & Population Health, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
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Division of HIV, Infectious Diseases & Global Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
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Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94134, USA
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Institute for Global Health Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94134, USA
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Division of Hospital Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94117, USA
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Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco CA 94117, USA
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Division of Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
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Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco CA 94134, USA
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Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
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Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Stanford University School of Medicine , Stanford, CA 94305, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
A list of authors and their affiliations appears in Appendix A at the end of the paper.
Academic Editors: Denise Harrison and S. Louise Cosby
Vaccines 2021, 9(12), 1406; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121406
Received: 23 September 2021 / Revised: 20 November 2021 / Accepted: 22 November 2021 / Published: 29 November 2021
Objective: The study was designed to compare intentions to receive COVID-19 vaccination by race–ethnicity, to identify beliefs that may mediate the association between race–ethnicity and intention to receive the vaccine and to identify the demographic factors and beliefs most strongly predictive of intention to receive a vaccine. Design: Cross-sectional survey conducted from November 2020 to January 2021, nested within a longitudinal cohort study of the prevalence and incidence of SARS-CoV-2 among a general population-based sample of adults in six San Francisco Bay Area counties (called TrackCOVID). Study Cohort: In total, 3161 participants among the 3935 in the TrackCOVID parent cohort responded. Results: Rates of high vaccine willingness were significantly lower among Black (41%), Latinx (55%), Asian (58%), Multi-racial (59%), and Other race (58%) respondents than among White respondents (72%). Black, Latinx, and Asian respondents were significantly more likely than White respondents to endorse lack of trust of government and health agencies as a reason not to get vaccinated. Participants’ motivations and concerns about COVID-19 vaccination only partially explained racial–ethnic differences in vaccination willingness. Concerns about a rushed government vaccine approval process and potential bad reactions to the vaccine were the two most important factors predicting vaccination intention. Conclusions: Vaccine outreach campaigns must ensure that the disproportionate toll of COVID-19 on historically marginalized racial–ethnic communities is not compounded by inequities in vaccination. Efforts must emphasize messages that speak to the motivations and concerns of groups suffering most from health inequities to earn their trust to support informed decision making. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19 vaccine intention; race–ethnicity; mediators; LASSO COVID-19 vaccine intention; race–ethnicity; mediators; LASSO
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MDPI and ACS Style

Weng, Y.; Lu, D.; Bollyky, J.; Jain, V.; Desai, M.; Lindan, C.; Boothroyd, D.; Judson, T.; Doernberg, S.B.; Holubar, M.; Sample, H.; Huang, B.; Maldonado, Y.; Rutherford, G.W.; Grumbach, K.; on behalf of the California Pandemic Consortium. Race-ethnicity and COVID-19 Vaccination Beliefs and Intentions: A Cross-Sectional Study among the General Population in the San Francisco Bay Area. Vaccines 2021, 9, 1406. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121406

AMA Style

Weng Y, Lu D, Bollyky J, Jain V, Desai M, Lindan C, Boothroyd D, Judson T, Doernberg SB, Holubar M, Sample H, Huang B, Maldonado Y, Rutherford GW, Grumbach K, on behalf of the California Pandemic Consortium. Race-ethnicity and COVID-19 Vaccination Beliefs and Intentions: A Cross-Sectional Study among the General Population in the San Francisco Bay Area. Vaccines. 2021; 9(12):1406. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121406

Chicago/Turabian Style

Weng, Yingjie, Di Lu, Jenna Bollyky, Vivek Jain, Manisha Desai, Christina Lindan, Derek Boothroyd, Timothy Judson, Sarah B. Doernberg, Marisa Holubar, Hannah Sample, Beatrice Huang, Yvonne Maldonado, George W. Rutherford, Kevin Grumbach, and on behalf of the California Pandemic Consortium. 2021. "Race-ethnicity and COVID-19 Vaccination Beliefs and Intentions: A Cross-Sectional Study among the General Population in the San Francisco Bay Area" Vaccines 9, no. 12: 1406. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121406

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