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Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Antiviral Properties of Herbal Materials

Department of Biomaterials, Nanotechnology and Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 8174673461, Iran
Advanced Materials Research Center, Department of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran
Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Johor 81310, Malaysia
Centre for Sustainable Nanomaterials, Ibnu Sina Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, Johor 81310, Malaysia
Advanced Membrane Technology Research Center (AMTEC), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Johor 81310, Malaysia
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576, Singapore
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(12), 1309;
Received: 17 November 2020 / Revised: 9 December 2020 / Accepted: 14 December 2020 / Published: 21 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Biomaterials in Health and Nutrition)
Recently, increasing public concern about hygiene has been driving many studies to investigate antimicrobial and antiviral agents. However, the use of any antimicrobial agents must be limited due to their possible toxic or harmful effects. In recent years, due to previous antibiotics’ lesser side effects, the use of herbal materials instead of synthetic or chemical drugs is increasing. Herbal materials are found in medicines. Herbs can be used in the form of plant extracts or as their active components. Furthermore, most of the world’s populations used herbal materials due to their strong antimicrobial properties and primary healthcare benefits. For example, herbs are an excellent material to replace nanosilver as an antibiotic and antiviral agent. The use of nanosilver involves an ROS-mediated mechanism that might lead to oxidative stress-related cancer, cytotoxicity, and heart diseases. Oxidative stress further leads to increased ROS production and also delays the cellular processes involved in wound healing. Therefore, existing antibiotic drugs can be replaced with biomaterials such as herbal medicine with high antimicrobial, antiviral, and antioxidant activity. This review paper highlights the antibacterial, antiviral, and radical scavenger (antioxidant) properties of herbal materials. Antimicrobial activity, radical scavenger ability, the potential for antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer agents, and efficacy in eliminating bacteria and viruses and scavenging free radicals in herbal materials are discussed in this review. The presented herbal antimicrobial agents in this review include clove, portulaca, tribulus, eryngium, cinnamon, turmeric, ginger, thyme, pennyroyal, mint, fennel, chamomile, burdock, eucalyptus, primrose, lemon balm, mallow, and garlic, which are all summarized. View Full-Text
Keywords: herbal material; reactive oxygen species (ROS); antimicrobial; antioxidant; medicine applications; antiviral; virucidal herbal material; reactive oxygen species (ROS); antimicrobial; antioxidant; medicine applications; antiviral; virucidal
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MDPI and ACS Style

Parham, S.; Kharazi, A.Z.; Bakhsheshi-Rad, H.R.; Nur, H.; Ismail, A.F.; Sharif, S.; RamaKrishna, S.; Berto, F. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Antiviral Properties of Herbal Materials. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 1309.

AMA Style

Parham S, Kharazi AZ, Bakhsheshi-Rad HR, Nur H, Ismail AF, Sharif S, RamaKrishna S, Berto F. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Antiviral Properties of Herbal Materials. Antioxidants. 2020; 9(12):1309.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Parham, Shokoh, Anousheh Zargar Kharazi, Hamid Reza Bakhsheshi-Rad, Hadi Nur, Ahmad Fauzi Ismail, Safian Sharif, Seeram RamaKrishna, and Filippo Berto. 2020. "Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Antiviral Properties of Herbal Materials" Antioxidants 9, no. 12: 1309.

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