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Open AccessArticle

Antioxidant Activity of Metal Nanoparticles Coated with Tocopherol-Like Residues—The Importance of Studies in Homo- and Heterogeneous Systems

by Adrian Konopko 1,2,†, Jaroslaw Kusio 1,† and Grzegorz Litwinienko 1,3,*
1
Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warsaw, Poland
2
Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 3 Pasteur St, 02-093 Warsaw, Poland
3
Biological and Chemical Research Centre, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, ul. Żwirki i Wigury 101, 02-089 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010005
Received: 26 November 2019 / Revised: 16 December 2019 / Accepted: 17 December 2019 / Published: 19 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Chemistry of Antioxidant Activity)
Functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) attract great attention in pharmacy, diagnostics, and biomedical areas due to benefits like localization and unique interactions of NPs with biocomponents of living cells. In the present paper, we prepared and characterized two kinds of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) coated with α-tocopherol-like residues: 1A were soluble in non-polar solvents and their antioxidant activity was tested during the peroxidation of a model hydrocarbon in a homogeneous system, whereas nanoparticles 1B were soluble in polar solvents and were applied as antioxidants in micellar and liposomal systems. The effectiveness of 1A is comparable to 2,2,5,7,8-pentamethylchroman-6-ol (PMHC, an analogue of α-tocopherol). Taking the results of the kinetic measurements, we calculated an average number of 2150 chromanol residues per one NP, suggesting a thick organic coating around the metal core. In heterogeneous systems, the peroxidation of methyl linoleate dispersed in Triton X-100 micelles or DMPC liposomes resulted in the observation that 1B (545 chromanol residues per one NP) was active enough to effectively inhibit peroxidation in a micellar system, but in a liposomal system, 1B behaved as a retardant (no clear induction period). The importance of microenvironment in heterogeneous systems on the overall antioxidant activity of nanoparticles is discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin E; Trolox; nanoparticles; antioxidant activity; peroxyl radicals; rate constant; micelles; liposomes vitamin E; Trolox; nanoparticles; antioxidant activity; peroxyl radicals; rate constant; micelles; liposomes
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Konopko, A.; Kusio, J.; Litwinienko, G. Antioxidant Activity of Metal Nanoparticles Coated with Tocopherol-Like Residues—The Importance of Studies in Homo- and Heterogeneous Systems. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 5.

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