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Optimization of Sonotrode Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Proanthocyanidins from Brewers’ Spent Grains

1
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Avd. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain
2
Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, University of Bologna, Piazza Goidanich 60, (FC) 47521 Cesena, Italy
3
Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus of Cartuja, 18071 Granada, Spain
4
Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology ‘José Mataix’, Biomedical Research Center, University of Granada, Avda del Conocimiento sn, 18100 Armilla, Granada, Spain
5
Interdepartmental Centre for Agri-Food Industrial Research, Alma Mater Studiorum, Università di Bologna, via Quinto Bucci 336, 47521 Cesena (FC), Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(8), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080282
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 28 July 2019 / Accepted: 31 July 2019 / Published: 6 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenolic Antioxidants from Agri-Food Waste Biomass)
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Abstract

Brewing spent grains (BSGs) are the main by-product from breweries and they are rich of proanthocyanidins, among other phenolic compounds. However, literature on these compounds in BSGs is scarce. Thus, this research focuses on the establishment of ultrasound-assisted extraction of proanthocyanidin compounds in brewing spent grains using a sonotrode. To set the sonotrode extraction up, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to study the effects of three factors, namely, solvent composition, time of extraction, and ultrasound power. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of proanthocyanidin compounds were performed using HPLC coupled to fluorometric and mass spectrometer detectors. The highest content of proanthocyanidins was obtained using 80/20 acetone/water (v/v), 55 min, and 400 W. The established method allows the extraction of 1.01 mg/g dry weight (d.w.) of pronthocyanidins from BSGs; this value is more than two times higher than conventional extraction. View Full-Text
Keywords: Box–Behnken design; proanthocyanidins; Brewers’ spent grains; sonotrode ultrasonic-assisted extraction; HPLC-fluorometric detector (FLD)–MS Box–Behnken design; proanthocyanidins; Brewers’ spent grains; sonotrode ultrasonic-assisted extraction; HPLC-fluorometric detector (FLD)–MS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Martín-García, B.; Pasini, F.; Verardo, V.; Díaz-de-Cerio, E.; Tylewicz, U.; Gómez-Caravaca, A.M.; Caboni, M.F. Optimization of Sonotrode Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Proanthocyanidins from Brewers’ Spent Grains. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 282.

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