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Amelioration of the Oxidative Stress Generated by Simple or Combined Abiotic Stress through the K+ and Ca2+ Supplementation in Tomato Plants

1
Department of Plant Nutrition, Campus Universitario de Espinardo, CEBAS-CSIC, Ed 25, Espinardo, 30100 Murcia, Spain
2
Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias de la Salud, Campus de los Jerónimos, UCAM (Universidad Católica San Antonio de Murcia), s/n, 30107 Murcia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this manuscript.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(4), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8040081
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 30 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Plant)
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Abstract

Abiotic stressors such as drought, heat, or salinity are major causes of yield loss worldwide due to the oxidative burst generated under these conditions. Recent studies have revealed that plant response to a combination of different environmental stressors is unique and cannot be deduced from the response developed to each stress when applied individually. Some studies have demonstrated that a different management of some nutrients in the irrigation solution may provide an advantage to the plants against abiotic stressors. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate if an increase in potassium (K+) and calcium (Ca2+) concentration in the nutrient solution may have a positive effect on the amelioration of oxidative stress which occurs under the combination of salinity and heat in tomato plants. Our results indicated that plants irrigated with an increase in K+ and Ca2+ concentrations in the irrigation solution from 7mM (K+) to 9.8 mM and from 4 mM (Ca2+) to 5.6 mM, respectively, induced a recovery of the biomass production compared to the plants treated with salinity or salinity + heat, and subsequently irrigated with the regular Hoagland solution. This was correlated with a better performance of all the photosynthetic parameters, a reduction in the foliar concentration of H2O2 and a lower lipid peroxidation rate, and with a better performance of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductactase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), and NADPH oxidase. Our results showed that these enzymes were differentially regulated at the transcriptional level, showing a higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification efficiency under salinity and under the combination of salinity and heat, as compared to those plants irrigated with common Hoagland. An increase in K+ and Ca2+ in the irrigation solution also induced a lower Na+ accumulation in leaves and a higher K+/Na+ ratio. Thus, our study highlights the importance of the right management of the plant nutritional status and fertilization in order to counteract the deleterious effects of abiotic stress in plants. View Full-Text
Keywords: abiotic stress combination; heat stress; salinity; photosynthesis; lipid peroxidation; ROS detoxification; antioxidant-related genes; antioxidant enzymes abiotic stress combination; heat stress; salinity; photosynthesis; lipid peroxidation; ROS detoxification; antioxidant-related genes; antioxidant enzymes
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García-Martí, M.; Piñero, M.C.; García-Sanchez, F.; Mestre, T.C.; López-Delacalle, M.; Martínez, V.; Rivero, R.M. Amelioration of the Oxidative Stress Generated by Simple or Combined Abiotic Stress through the K+ and Ca2+ Supplementation in Tomato Plants. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 81.

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