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Open AccessArticle

Untargeted Metabolomic Profiling, Multivariate Analysis and Biological Evaluation of the True Mangrove (Rhizophora mucronata Lam.)

1
Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Réduit 80837, Mauritius
2
Department for Sustainable Food Process, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Emilia Parmense 84, 29122 Piacenza, Italy
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Food Science and Nutrition Section, University of Perugia, Via S. Costanzo 1, 06126 Perugia, Italy
4
Department of Biology, Science Faculty, Selcuk University, Campus, 42130 Konya, Turkey
5
Department of Medicinal Laboratory, Vocational School of Health Services, Selcuk University, 42130 Konya, Turkey
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work and are the co-first authors.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(10), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8100489
Received: 2 October 2019 / Revised: 14 October 2019 / Accepted: 15 October 2019 / Published: 16 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity in Plants)
Currently, there is a renewed interest towards the development of plant-based pharmacophores. In this work, 16 extracts prepared from the leaves, twigs, roots and fruits of a hydro-halophyte, Rhizophora mucronata Lam. (Family: Rhizophoraceae), were studied for possible antioxidant activity and the phenolic profiles established. Thereafter, enzymatic inhibitory activities (α-amylase, α-glucosidase, tyrosinase, acetyl- (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), lipase, and elastase) were assessed. The total phenolic, flavonoid, phenolic acid, tannin, flavanol and triterpenoid content were estimated using standard assays. An untargeted metabolomics-based approach, based on ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) followed by multivariate statistics, was then used to comprehensively profile and describe the phenolics present. UHPLC-QTOF-MS allowed for putatively annotating 104 phenolic acids, 103 flavonols, 94 flavones, 71 anthocyanins, 66 tyrosols, 29 lignans, 15 alkylphenols and 10 stilbenes in the extracts. Nine strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Salmonella enteritidis, Sarcina lutea, Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus cereus and Candida albicans) were then used to investigate the antimicrobial properties. The methanolic twig extract exhibited significant reducing potential towards Cu (II)/Cu (I) and Fe (III)/Fe (II) (1336.88 ± 15.70 and 710.18 ± 21.04 mg TE/g, respectively) and was the most potent DPPH radical scavenger (807.07 ± 6.83 mg TE/g). Additionally, the methanolic twig extract showed significant inhibition against most targeted enzymes. Anti-microbial results showed that all extracts were active against MRSA. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the phenolic profile of ethyl acetate extracts and leaves were the two most discriminative parameters in terms of solvents and organs, respectively. The present findings indicated that R. mucronata may be further explored for the management/prevention of oxidative stress, neurodegenerative complications and hyperpigmentation. View Full-Text
Keywords: true mangrove; antimicrobial; antioxidant; phytochemicals; hyperpigmentation; oxidative stress; enzyme inhibitors true mangrove; antimicrobial; antioxidant; phytochemicals; hyperpigmentation; oxidative stress; enzyme inhibitors
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Sadeer, N.B.; Rocchetti, G.; Senizza, B.; Montesano, D.; Zengin, G.; Uysal, A.; Jeewon, R.; Lucini, L.; Mahomoodally, M.F. Untargeted Metabolomic Profiling, Multivariate Analysis and Biological Evaluation of the True Mangrove (Rhizophora mucronata Lam.). Antioxidants 2019, 8, 489.

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