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Open AccessArticle

Larrea tridentata Extract Mitigates Oxidative Stress-Induced Cytotoxicity in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells

1
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Border Biomedical Research Center, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968, USA
2
Border Biomedical Research Center (BBRC), Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968, USA
3
Department of Biological Sciences, Center for Cancer Research and Therapeutic Development, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314, USA
4
Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(10), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8100427
Received: 7 September 2019 / Revised: 19 September 2019 / Accepted: 23 September 2019 / Published: 25 September 2019
Creosote bush (Larrea tridentata; LT) leaves extracts were tested for their potential efficacy to mitigate cellular oxidative stress on human SH-SY5Y cells. Here, the differential nuclear staining assay, a bioimager system, and flow cytometric protocols, concurrently with several specific chemicals, were used to measure the percentage of cell viability and several facets implicated in the cytoprotective mechanism of LT extracts. Initially, three LT extracts, prepared with different solvents, ethanol, ethanol:water (e/w), and water, were tested for their capacity to rescue the viability of cells undergoing aggressive H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Results indicate that the LT extract prepared with a mixture of ethanol:water (LT-e/w; 60:40% v/v) displayed the most effective cytoprotection rescue activity. Interestingly, by investigating the LT-e/w mechanism of action, it was found that LT-e/w extract decreases the levels of H2O2-provoked reactive oxidative species (ROS) accumulation, mitochondrial depolarization, phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase-3/7 activation, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage significantly, which are hallmarks of apoptosis. Thus, out of the three LT extracts tested, our findings highlight that the LT-e/w extract was the most effective protective reagent on SH-SY5Y cells undergoing oxidative stress in vitro, functioning as a natural anti-apoptotic extract. These findings warrant further LT-e/w extract examination in a holistic context. View Full-Text
Keywords: oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species; antioxidants; apoptosis; cell cycle; cytoprotection; neurodegenerative diseases; Alzheimer; human neuroblastoma SHSY5Y cells oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species; antioxidants; apoptosis; cell cycle; cytoprotection; neurodegenerative diseases; Alzheimer; human neuroblastoma SHSY5Y cells
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Morán-Santibañez, K.; Vasquez, A.H.; Varela-Ramirez, A.; Henderson, V.; Sweeney, J.; Odero-Marah, V.; Fenelon, K.; Skouta, R. Larrea tridentata Extract Mitigates Oxidative Stress-Induced Cytotoxicity in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 427.

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