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Open AccessArticle

Red-Osier Dogwood Extracts Prevent Inflammatory Responses in Caco-2 Cells and a Caco-2 BBe1/EA.hy926 Cell Co-Culture Model

1
Department of Animal Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
2
Laboratory of Animal Nutritional Physiology and Metabolic Process, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125, China
3
Food Nutrition and Safety, Department of Pharmacy, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang 330004, China
4
Guelph Research & Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Guelph, ON N1G 5C9, Canada
5
State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, University of Nanchang, Nanchang 330047, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(10), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8100428
Received: 31 August 2019 / Revised: 21 September 2019 / Accepted: 23 September 2019 / Published: 25 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants)
Red-osier dogwood extracts (RDE) contain high levels of phenolic compounds which have been recognized as natural antioxidants. In this study, the potential of RDE to prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) was evaluated using Caco-2 cells and a co-culture model of Caco-2 BBe1/EA.hy926 cells in Transwell® plates. The results showed that RDE supplementation significantly prevented interleukin-8 (IL-8) production and suppressed the gene expression of IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in the TNF-α inflamed Caco-2 cells. Meanwhile, the polyphenols (quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-glucuronide, rutin, quercetin-3-O-malonylglucoside, and kaempferol-glucoside) in the RDE were validated to be absorbed by Caco-2 BBe1 cells and transported to the basal chamber where EA.hy926 cells were located during 12 h incubation. The transported polyphenols were able to prevent IL-8 production and suppress the gene expression of proinflammatory mediators (TNF-α, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and COX-2) in the TNF-α or oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) treated EA.hy926 cells. These novel findings demonstrated that phenolic compounds in RDE can be transported to the cardiovascular system by intestinal absorption and mitigate the inflammatory responses of vascular endothelial cells, indicating that RDE could be a natural resource of polyphenols to prevent inflammation cytokine or oxidized lipid-induced CVDs. View Full-Text
Keywords: red-osier dogwood; polyphenols; antioxidants; TNF-α; ox-LDL; Caco-2 BBe-1/EA.hy926 co-culture cell model red-osier dogwood; polyphenols; antioxidants; TNF-α; ox-LDL; Caco-2 BBe-1/EA.hy926 co-culture cell model
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Jiang, Q.; Zhang, H.; Yang, R.; Hui, Q.; Chen, Y.; Mats, L.; Tsao, R.; Yang, C. Red-Osier Dogwood Extracts Prevent Inflammatory Responses in Caco-2 Cells and a Caco-2 BBe1/EA.hy926 Cell Co-Culture Model. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 428.

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