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Article

A Large-Scale Multiple Genome Comparison of Acidophilic Archaea (pH ≤ 5.0) Extends Our Understanding of Oxidative Stress Responses in Polyextreme Environments

1
Center for Bioinformatics and Genome Biology, Fundación Ciencia & Vida, Santiago 7780272, Chile
2
Facultad de Medicina y Ciencias, Universidad San Sebastián, Santiago 8420524, Chile
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stanley Omaye
Antioxidants 2022, 11(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11010059
Received: 23 November 2021 / Revised: 19 December 2021 / Accepted: 23 December 2021 / Published: 28 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress Response in Archaea)
Acidophilic archaea thrive in anaerobic and aerobic low pH environments (pH < 5) rich in dissolved heavy metals that exacerbate stress caused by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical (·OH) and superoxide (O2). ROS react with lipids, proteins and nucleic acids causing oxidative stress and damage that can lead to cell death. Herein, genes and mechanisms potentially involved in ROS mitigation are predicted in over 200 genomes of acidophilic archaea with sequenced genomes. These organisms are often be subjected to simultaneous multiple stresses such as high temperature, high salinity, low pH and high heavy metal loads. Some of the topics addressed include: (1) the phylogenomic distribution of these genes and what this can tell us about the evolution of these mechanisms in acidophilic archaea; (2) key differences in genes and mechanisms used by acidophilic versus non-acidophilic archaea and between acidophilic archaea and acidophilic bacteria and (3) how comparative genomic analysis predicts novel genes or pathways involved in oxidative stress responses in archaea and likely horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events. View Full-Text
Keywords: comparative genomics; catalase; peroxiredoxin; superoxide dismutase (SOD); superoxide reductase (SOR); rubrerythrin; antioxidant enzymes; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species (ROS); horizontal hene transfer (HGT) comparative genomics; catalase; peroxiredoxin; superoxide dismutase (SOD); superoxide reductase (SOR); rubrerythrin; antioxidant enzymes; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species (ROS); horizontal hene transfer (HGT)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Neira, G.; Vergara, E.; Cortez, D.; Holmes, D.S. A Large-Scale Multiple Genome Comparison of Acidophilic Archaea (pH ≤ 5.0) Extends Our Understanding of Oxidative Stress Responses in Polyextreme Environments. Antioxidants 2022, 11, 59. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11010059

AMA Style

Neira G, Vergara E, Cortez D, Holmes DS. A Large-Scale Multiple Genome Comparison of Acidophilic Archaea (pH ≤ 5.0) Extends Our Understanding of Oxidative Stress Responses in Polyextreme Environments. Antioxidants. 2022; 11(1):59. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11010059

Chicago/Turabian Style

Neira, Gonzalo, Eva Vergara, Diego Cortez, and David S. Holmes. 2022. "A Large-Scale Multiple Genome Comparison of Acidophilic Archaea (pH ≤ 5.0) Extends Our Understanding of Oxidative Stress Responses in Polyextreme Environments" Antioxidants 11, no. 1: 59. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11010059

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