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Article

Preliminary Findings on the Association of the Lipid Peroxidation Product 4-Hydroxynonenal with the Lethal Outcome of Aggressive COVID-19

1
Laboratory for Oxidative Stress (LabOS), Ruđer Bošković Institute, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Clinical Hospital Dubrava, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Omnignostica Ltd., 3421 Höflein an der Donau, Austria
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Department of Pathology, Clinical Hospital Centre Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Karl Franzens University, 8010 Graz, Austria
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Department of Pathology, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-089 Bialystok, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Dimitrios Kouretas, Konstantinos Poulas, Konstantinos Farsalinos and Joanna Floros
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1341; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091341
Received: 15 July 2021 / Revised: 21 August 2021 / Accepted: 24 August 2021 / Published: 25 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ROS and COVID)
Major findings of the pilot study involving 21 critically ill patients during the week after admission to the critical care unit specialized for COVID-19 are presented. Fourteen patients have recovered, while seven passed away. There were no differences between them in respect to clinical or laboratory parameters monitored. However, protein adducts of the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) were higher in the plasma of the deceased patients, while total antioxidant capacity was below the detection limit for the majority of sera samples in both groups. Moreover, levels of the HNE-protein adducts were constant in the plasma of the deceased patients, while in survivors, they have shown prominent and dynamic variations, suggesting that survivors had active oxidative stress response mechanisms reacting to COVID-19 aggression, which were not efficient in patients who died. Immunohistochemistry revealed the abundant presence of HNE-protein adducts in the lungs of deceased patients indicating that HNE is associated with the lethal outcome. It seems that HNE was spreading from the blood vessels more than being a consequence of pneumonia. Due to the limitations of the relatively small number of patients involved in this study, further research on HNE and antioxidants is needed. This might allow a better understanding of COVID-19 and options for utilizing antioxidants by personalized, integrative biomedicine approach to prevent the onset of HNE-mediated vitious circle of lipid peroxidation in patients with aggressive inflammatory diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; oxidative stress; lipid peroxidation; 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE); inflammation; antioxidants; peroxides; free radicals; reactive oxygen species (ROS); blood vessels; lungs; immunohistochemistry; HNE-ELISA; SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19; oxidative stress; lipid peroxidation; 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE); inflammation; antioxidants; peroxides; free radicals; reactive oxygen species (ROS); blood vessels; lungs; immunohistochemistry; HNE-ELISA; SARS-CoV-2
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MDPI and ACS Style

Žarković, N.; Orehovec, B.; Milković, L.; Baršić, B.; Tatzber, F.; Wonisch, W.; Tarle, M.; Kmet, M.; Mataić, A.; Jakovčević, A.; Vuković, T.; Talić, D.; Waeg, G.; Lukšić, I.; Skrzydlewska, E.; Žarković, K. Preliminary Findings on the Association of the Lipid Peroxidation Product 4-Hydroxynonenal with the Lethal Outcome of Aggressive COVID-19. Antioxidants 2021, 10, 1341. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091341

AMA Style

Žarković N, Orehovec B, Milković L, Baršić B, Tatzber F, Wonisch W, Tarle M, Kmet M, Mataić A, Jakovčević A, Vuković T, Talić D, Waeg G, Lukšić I, Skrzydlewska E, Žarković K. Preliminary Findings on the Association of the Lipid Peroxidation Product 4-Hydroxynonenal with the Lethal Outcome of Aggressive COVID-19. Antioxidants. 2021; 10(9):1341. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091341

Chicago/Turabian Style

Žarković, Neven, Biserka Orehovec, Lidija Milković, Bruno Baršić, Franz Tatzber, Willibald Wonisch, Marko Tarle, Marta Kmet, Ana Mataić, Antonia Jakovčević, Tea Vuković, Danijela Talić, Georg Waeg, Ivica Lukšić, Elzbieta Skrzydlewska, and Kamelija Žarković. 2021. "Preliminary Findings on the Association of the Lipid Peroxidation Product 4-Hydroxynonenal with the Lethal Outcome of Aggressive COVID-19" Antioxidants 10, no. 9: 1341. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091341

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