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Brain Sci. 2018, 8(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8030047

Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder: Etiology, Clinical Features, and Therapeutic Perspectives

1
Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University “G. d’Annunzio”, 66100 Chieti, Italy
2
Department of Pharmacy, Pharmacology, Postgraduate Medicine, University of Hertfordshire, Herts AL10 9AB, UK
3
Institute of Psychiatry and Psychology, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, 00168 Rome, Italy
4
Lev Hasharon Mental Health Medical Center, Pardessya 42100, Israel
5
Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69121, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 16 March 2018
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Abstract

Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD) is a rare, and therefore, poorly understood condition linked to hallucinogenic drugs consumption. The prevalence of this disorder is low; the condition is more often diagnosed in individuals with a history of previous psychological issues or substance misuse, but it can arise in anyone, even after a single exposure to triggering drugs. The aims of the present study are to review all the original studies about HPPD in order to evaluate the following: (1) the possible suggested etiologies; (2) the possible hallucinogens involved in HPPD induction; (3) the clinical features of both HPPD I and II; (4) the possible psychiatric comorbidities; and (5) the available and potential therapeutic strategies. We searched PubMed to identify original studies about psychedelics and Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD). Our research yielded a total of 45 papers, which have been analyzed and tabled to provide readers with the most updated and comprehensive literature review about the clinical features and treatment options for HPPD. View Full-Text
Keywords: Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder; flashbacks; hallucinogenic substances; LSD; psychedelics; visual disturbances; perceptual disturbances Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder; flashbacks; hallucinogenic substances; LSD; psychedelics; visual disturbances; perceptual disturbances
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Martinotti, G.; Santacroce, R.; Pettorruso, M.; Montemitro, C.; Spano, M.C.; Lorusso, M.; di Giannantonio, M.; Lerner, A.G. Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder: Etiology, Clinical Features, and Therapeutic Perspectives. Brain Sci. 2018, 8, 47.

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