Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder: Etiology, Clinical Features, and Therapeutic Perspectives
AbstractHallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD) is a rare, and therefore, poorly understood condition linked to hallucinogenic drugs consumption. The prevalence of this disorder is low; the condition is more often diagnosed in individuals with a history of previous psychological issues or substance misuse, but it can arise in anyone, even after a single exposure to triggering drugs. The aims of the present study are to review all the original studies about HPPD in order to evaluate the following: (1) the possible suggested etiologies; (2) the possible hallucinogens involved in HPPD induction; (3) the clinical features of both HPPD I and II; (4) the possible psychiatric comorbidities; and (5) the available and potential therapeutic strategies. We searched PubMed to identify original studies about psychedelics and Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD). Our research yielded a total of 45 papers, which have been analyzed and tabled to provide readers with the most updated and comprehensive literature review about the clinical features and treatment options for HPPD. View Full-Text
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Martinotti, G.; Santacroce, R.; Pettorruso, M.; Montemitro, C.; Spano, M.C.; Lorusso, M.; Di Giannantonio, M.; Lerner, A.G. Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder: Etiology, Clinical Features, and Therapeutic Perspectives. Brain Sci. 2018, 8, 47.
Martinotti G, Santacroce R, Pettorruso M, Montemitro C, Spano MC, Lorusso M, Di Giannantonio M, Lerner AG. Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder: Etiology, Clinical Features, and Therapeutic Perspectives. Brain Sciences. 2018; 8(3):47.Chicago/Turabian Style
Martinotti, Giovanni; Santacroce, Rita; Pettorruso, Mauro; Montemitro, Chiara; Spano, Maria C.; Lorusso, Marco; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Lerner, Arturo G. 2018. "Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder: Etiology, Clinical Features, and Therapeutic Perspectives." Brain Sci. 8, no. 3: 47.
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