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Brain Sci. 2018, 8(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8030043

Mood Fluctuation and Psychobiological Instability: The Same Core Functions Are Disrupted by Novel Psychoactive Substances and Established Recreational Drugs

1
Department of Psychology, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, South Wales, UK
2
Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC 3122, Australia
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
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Abstract

Many novel psychoactive substances (NPS) have entered the recreational drug scene in recent years, yet the problems they cause are similar to those found with established drugs. This article will debate the psychobiological effects of these newer and more traditional substances. It will show how they disrupt the same core psychobiological functions, so damaging well-being in similar ways. Every psychoactive drug causes mood states to fluctuate. Users feel better on-drug, then feel worse off-drug. The strength of these mood fluctuations is closely related to their addiction potential. Cyclical changes can occur with many other core psychobiological functions, such as information processing and psychomotor speed. Hence the list of drug-related impairments can include: homeostatic imbalance, HPA axis disruption, increased stress, altered sleep patterns, neurohormonal changes, modified brain rhythms, neurocognitive impairments, and greater psychiatric vulnerability. Similar patterns of deficit are found with older drugs such as cocaine, nicotine and cannabis, and newer substances such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), mephedrone and spice. All psychoactive drugs damage human well-being through similar basic neuropsychobiological mechanisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: amphetamine; cocaine; mephedrone; cannabis; spice; drug; mood; homeostasis amphetamine; cocaine; mephedrone; cannabis; spice; drug; mood; homeostasis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Parrott, A.C. Mood Fluctuation and Psychobiological Instability: The Same Core Functions Are Disrupted by Novel Psychoactive Substances and Established Recreational Drugs. Brain Sci. 2018, 8, 43.

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