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Open AccessArticle

Reconstruction of the Microstructure of Cyanate Ester Resin by Using Prepared Cyanate Ester Resin Nanoparticles and Analysis of the Curing Kinetics Using the Avrami Equation of Phase Change

Research Institute of Carbon Fiber and Composite Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China
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Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(11), 2365; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9112365
Received: 4 May 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 10 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase Transitions in Polymer and Polymer-Based (Nano)Composites)
Bisphenol A dicyanate (BADCy) resin nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation polymerization and used to modulate the microstructure of the BADCy resin matrix. A microscopic mechanism model was used to characterize the curing process of BADCy resin systems with different contents of the prepared nanoparticles. Due to the curing process of the thermosetting resin being analogous to the crystallization process of the polymer, the Avrami equation was used to analyze the microscopic mechanism of the curing process. The reactive functional groups, structure, and size of the prepared BADCy resin nanoparticles were characterized by FT-IR, SEM, and TEM, respectively. The kinetic parameters of different systems were then obtained using the Avrami equation, and they adequately explained the microscopic mechanism of the curing process. The results showed that the Avrami equation effectively described the formation and growth of gel particles during the curing process of the BADCy resins. The addition of nanoparticles can affect the curing behavior and curing rate. Since the reaction between the BADCy resin nanoparticles and the matrix is dominant, the formation process of the gel particles was neglected. This phenomenon can be understood as the added BADCy resin nanoparticles replacing the formation of gel particles. The reasons for accelerated curing were analyzed from the perspective of thermodynamics and kinetics. Besides this, the Arrhenius equation for non-isothermal conditions correctly accounted for the change in the cross-linked mechanism in the late-stage curing process. A comparison of the theoretical prediction with the experimental data shows that the Avrami theory of phase change can simulate the curing kinetics of different BADCy resin systems well and explain the effects of BADCy resin nanoparticles on the formation of the microstructure. View Full-Text
Keywords: bisphenol a dicyanate resin; Avrami equation; Arrhenius equation; curing behavior bisphenol a dicyanate resin; Avrami equation; Arrhenius equation; curing behavior
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cao, H.; Liu, B.; Ye, Y.; Liu, Y.; Li, P. Reconstruction of the Microstructure of Cyanate Ester Resin by Using Prepared Cyanate Ester Resin Nanoparticles and Analysis of the Curing Kinetics Using the Avrami Equation of Phase Change. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 2365.

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