User-Aware Audio Marker Using Low Frequency Ultrasonic Object Detection and Communication for Augmented Reality
AbstractIn augmented reality (AR), audio markers can be alternatives to image markers for rendering virtual objects when an AR device camera fails to identify the image marker due to lighting conditions and/or the distance between the marker and device. However, conventional audio markers simply broadcast a rendering queue to anonymous devices, making it difficult to provide specific virtual objects of interest to the user. To overcome this limitation without relying on camera-based sensing, we propose a user-aware audio marker system using low frequency ultrasonic signal processing. The proposed system detects users who stay within the marker using ultrasonic-based object detection, and then it uses ultrasonic communication based on windowed differential phase shift keying modulation in order to send a rendering queue only to those users near the marker. Since the proposed system uses commercial microphones and speakers, conventional telecommunication systems can be employed to deliver the audio markers. The performance of the proposed audio marker system is evaluated in terms of object detection accuracy and communication robustness. First, the object detection accuracy of the proposed system is compared with that of a pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensor-based system in indoor environments, and it is shown that the proposed system achieves a lower equal error rate than the PIR sensor-based system. Next, the successful transmission rate of the proposed system is measured for various distances and azimuths under noisy conditions, and it is also shown that the proposed audio marker system can successfully operate up to approximately 4 m without any transmission errors, even with 70 dBSPL ambient noise. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Jeon, K.M.; Chun, C.J.; Kim, H.K.; Lee, M.J. User-Aware Audio Marker Using Low Frequency Ultrasonic Object Detection and Communication for Augmented Reality. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 2004.
Jeon KM, Chun CJ, Kim HK, Lee MJ. User-Aware Audio Marker Using Low Frequency Ultrasonic Object Detection and Communication for Augmented Reality. Applied Sciences. 2019; 9(10):2004.Chicago/Turabian Style
Jeon, Kwang M.; Chun, Chan J.; Kim, Hong K.; Lee, Myung J. 2019. "User-Aware Audio Marker Using Low Frequency Ultrasonic Object Detection and Communication for Augmented Reality." Appl. Sci. 9, no. 10: 2004.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.