# A Review on Fault Current Limiting Devices to Enhance the Fault Ride-Through Capability of the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Based Wind Turbine

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Doubly-Fed Induction Generator

_{DC}) in a constant value. It should be noted that, because of the operation of the DC braking chopper and the time-varying characteristics of the electromagnetic interaction with the stator and the rotor, the response of the DFIG is very non-linear. However, during the fault, the DC-link voltage is almost kept constant when the DC braking chopper operates. In a static stator-oriented reference frame, the rotor and the stator fluxes, ${\overrightarrow{\psi}}_{r}$, ${\overrightarrow{\psi}}_{s}$, and the rotor and the stator voltages, ${\overrightarrow{v}}_{r}$, ${\overrightarrow{v}}_{s}$, are expressed as follows with respect to the Park model of the DFIG [13]:

_{r}), and the transient inductance (σL

_{r}) during the fault condition. The level of rotor transient over-current will be changed with regard to the fault instant, the type of fault, and the voltage sag depth [14]. For instance, during a symmetrical grid fault, the open circuit rotor voltage (${\overrightarrow{v}}_{ro}^{r}$) includes two expressions as follows:

_{s}, p, and s during the symmetrical grid fault, respectively. Also, ${\tau}_{s}$ decaying time constant is equal to ${L}_{s}/{R}_{s}$.

_{ref}) is computed in respect to maximum power point tracking and then the extracted active power (P

_{extract}), which depends on the wind speed, is compared to P

_{ref}. Consequently, the d-axis reference current of the rotor is achieved. Meanwhile, the reference value for the reactive power of the stator (Q

_{s-ref}) is considered zero. Therefore, during the normal operation, the absorbed reactive power (Q

_{s}) from the stator side of the DFIG will be equal to the reference value, and the required reactive power for the DFIG will be covered by the back-to-back converters. To maintain the DC-link voltage in constant value, the grid side converter provides the active power to the rotor side. Therefore, the d-axis reference current is obtained by comparing the DC-link voltage with the reference value (V

_{DC-ref}). Meanwhile, the reactive power (Q) in the GSC and the RSC is adjusted by the reference value of Q

_{ref}.

## 3. Fault Ride-Through

## 4. Fault Current Limiting Devices

#### 4.1. Non-Superconducting FCL

#### 4.1.1. Inductive Type FCL: Non-Controlled FCL

#### 4.1.2. Inductive-Resistive Type FCL: Optimized Located FCL

#### 4.1.3. Resistive Type FCL: Thyristor Bridge Type FCL

#### 4.1.4. Resistive Type FCL: Switch Type FCL (STFCL)

_{f}, which is smaller than C

_{a}, C

_{a}absorbs the excess energy in the stator until its voltage reaches a steady state. Afterwards, the current pass, in the DC side of the diode bridge, is blocked and the inductor does its limiting operation. The STFCL’s impact on the DFIG is the same as has been discussed for the non-controlled FCL located in the stator side.

#### 4.1.5. Resistive Type FCL: Variable Resistive Type FCL

#### 4.1.6. Resonance Type FCL: Parallel Resonance Type FCL

#### 4.2. Superconducting FCL

#### 4.2.1. Inductive Type FCL: Superconducting Fault Current Limiter–Magnetic Energy Storage System (SFCL-MES)

#### 4.2.2. Inductive Type FCL: Active SFCL with Reactive Power Injection

#### 4.2.3. Resistive Type FCL: DC-Resistive SFCL

#### 4.2.4. Resistive Type FCL: Resistive-Flux-Coupling Type SFCL

_{1}). Furthermore, an arrestor is employed to overcome the overvoltage in switching instances. In normal operation, S

_{1}is closed and if the coupling coefficient is supposed to be one, then the FCL’s impedance is almost zero. When a fault happens, S

_{1}goes to the off state and the overvoltage is restricted by the arrestor. The SC enters into the fault current pass to limit the current level. It should be noted that placing a resistive impedance in the stator side can be much more effective than in the rotor side, due to the voltage sag compensation and the greater active power absorption. The resistive type FCL in the stator side limits both the stator and rotor currents effectively.

#### 4.2.5. Resistive Type FCL: Resistive Type SFCL with Transient Voltage Control (TVC)

#### 4.2.6. Resistive Type FCL: Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) with the SFCL

#### 4.2.7. Resistive Type FCL: Resistive Type SFCL in the Rotor Side

#### 4.3. Series Dynamic Braking Resistor

## 5. Simulation Results

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

FRT | Fault Ride-Through |

DFIG | Doubly-Fed Induction Generator |

RSC | Rotor Side Converter |

PCC | Point of the Common Coupling |

FCLs | Fault Current Limiters |

SDBRs | Series Dynamic Braking Resistors |

GSC | Grid Side Converter |

EMF | Electromotive Force |

SFCL-MES | Superconducting Fault Current Limiter–Magnetic Energy Storage System |

TVC | Transient Voltage Control |

SMES | Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage |

STATCOM | Static Synchronous Compensator |

DVR | Dynamic Voltage Restorers |

BTFCL-BR | Thyristor Bridge Type FCL with Bypass Resistor |

NSC | Non-Superconductor |

STFCL | Switch Type FCL |

VR-FCL | Variable Resistive Type FCL |

FLC | Fuzzy Logic Controller |

SNC | Static Nonlinear Controller |

ANFIS | Adaptive-Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System |

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**Figure 2.**Diagram of the fault ride-through (FRT) capability enhancement by fault current limiting devices in the doubly-fed induction generator. FCL: Fault current limiter.

**Figure 3.**(

**A**) The doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) configuration, with all possible highlighted locations for the fault current limiters and series dynamic braking resistors, in the fault ride-through capability improvement. RSC: Rotor side converter; GSC: Grid side converter; PCC: Point of the common coupling. (

**B**) The schematic of control circuits for: (

**a**) The rotor side converter; and (

**b**) the grid side converter [15]. Adapted with permission from [15], Copyright Publisher, 2017.

**Figure 4.**The doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) configuration with the most well-known fault ride-through (FRT) enhancement approaches. DVR: Dynamic voltage restorers; STATCOM: Static synchronous compensator.

**Figure 5.**(

**a**) The non-controlled inductive fault current limiter [26]; and (

**b**) the leakage coefficient variation, with the FCL inductance variation in the stator and the rotor sides.

**Figure 6.**The optimized located FCL [27].

**Figure 12.**With the inductive type fault current limiter in the stator side (L1), in the terminal side (L2), and in the rotor side (L4) during a three-phase fault: (

**a**) The stator currents; and (

**b**) the rotor currents.

**Figure 13.**With the resistive type fault current limiter in the stator side (L1), in the terminal side (L2), and in the rotor side (L4) during a three-phase fault: (

**a**) The stator currents; and (

**b**) the rotor currents.

FCL Type | Location | Impedance Type | Rotor Transient Over-Current Limitation | Stator Fault Current Limitation | Excess Active Power Evacuation | Terminal Voltage Sag Compensation | Rotor Switching State during the Fault | Operation on Different Types of Fault | Components | SC. | Cost |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

SFCL-MES | L1 and L4 | Inductive | L1: Yes (G.) L4: Yes (E.) | L1: Yes (E.) L4: Yes (G.) | No | L1: Yes (G.) L4: No | Continuous with different control, good controllability of the RSC in L1 | Not effective in asymmetrical faults | I-T*1 Diodes*6(CSC)*8(VSC) Inductor*1 S-S*0(CSC)*2(VSC) | Yes | High |

Switch Type FCL | L1 | Inductive | Yes (G.) | Yes (E.) | No | Yes (G.) | Continuous with good RSC controllability | Not effective in asymmetrical faults | I-T*1 Diode*6 Inductor*1 S-S*1 A snubber circuit | No | Low |

Active SFCL with Reactive Power Injection | L2 | Inductive | Yes (G.) | Yes (E.) | No | Yes (G.) | Continuous with good RSC controllability | Effective for all fault types | I-T*1(superconductive) A low pass filter S-S*6 A split DC-link capacitors | Yes | High |

DC Resistive FCL | L2 | Resistive | Yes (G.) | Yes (E.) | Yes | Yes (G.) | Continuous with good RSC controllability | Effective for all fault types | Diodes*12 SC*3 | Yes | High |

Resistive Flux Coupling Type SFCL | L1 and L4 | Resistive | L1: Yes (E.) L4: Yes (G.) | L1: Yes (E.) L4: Yes (G.) | Yes | L1: Yes (G.) L4: No | Continuous with different control, good controllability of the RSC in L1 | Effective for all fault types | Coupling Transformer*3 SC*3 S-S*3 Arrestor*3 | Yes | High |

Resistive Type SFCL with SMES | L2 | Resistive | Yes (G.) | Yes (E.) | Yes | Yes (E.) | Continuous with good RSC controllability | Effective for all fault types | Parallel Transformer*1 S-S*7 SC.*4 Diode*1 Capacitor*1 | Yes | High |

Resistive Type SFCL with Transient Voltage Control | L2 | Resistive | Yes (G.) | Yes (E.) | Yes | Yes (E.) | Continuous with TVC, good controllability of the RSC | Effective for all fault types | SC.*3 | Yes | High |

Resistive Type SFCL, SMES with Common SC | L2 | Resistive | Yes (G.) | Yes (E.) | Yes | Yes (E.) | Continuous with good RSC controllability | Effective for all fault types | S-S*18 SC.*3 Diode*12 Capacitor*3 | Yes | High |

Thyristor Bridge Type FCL with Bypass Resistor | L1 | Resistive | Yes (G.) | Yes (E.) | Yes | Yes (E.) | Continuous with good RSC controllability | Not effective in asymmetrical faults | I-T*1 Diode*1 Thyristor*6 Bypass resistor*3 Inductance*1 | No | Low |

Variable Resistive Type FCL | L2 | Variable resistance | Yes (G.) | Yes (E.) | Yes, controlled active power absorption | Yes (E.) | Continuous | Not effective in asymmetrical faults | I-T*1 Diode*6 Inductor*1 S-S*1 Resistance*1 | No | Low |

Optimized Located FCL | L3 | Resistive-inductive | Yes (E.) | Yes (G.) | Yes, the rotor active power | No | Blocked | Effective for all fault types | S-S*2 Resistance*2 Inductance*2 Arrestor*2 | No | Low |

Non-controlled FCL | L1 and L4 | Inductive | L1: Yes (G.) L4: Yes (E.) | L1: Yes (E.) L4: Yes (G.) | No | L1: Yes (G.) L4: No | Continuous | Effective for all fault types | I-T*1 Diode*6 Inductor*1 | No | Low |

Parallel Resonance Type FCL | L2 | Resonance | Yes (G.) | Yes (E.) | Yes | Yes (E.) | Continuous | Effective for all fault types | S-S*3 Diode*15 Inductance*6 Capacitance*3 | No | Low |

SDBR | L1 and L4 | Resistive | L1: Yes (G.) L4: Yes (E.) | L1: Yes (E.) L4: Yes (G.) | Yes | L1: Yes (G.) L4: No | Blocked | Effective for all fault types | Resistance*3 Thyristor*6 | No | Low |

The DFIG and Transformer | |

Rated power | 2 MW |

Three-phase transformer | 0.69/34.5 kV, 60Hz, 5MVA |

Rated stator voltage | 690 V |

Rated frequency | 60 Hz |

Stator leakage inductance | 0.12 p.u. |

Rotor leakage inductance | 0.12 p.u. |

Magnetising inductance | 3.45 p.u. |

Stator to rotor turns ratio | 0.35 |

Stator resistance | 0.011 p.u. |

Stator inductance | 0.012 p.u. |

Nominal wind speed | 13 m/s |

The DC Chopper | |

Rated DC-link voltage | 1200 V |

DC chopper resistor | 0.5 Ω |

DC bus capacitor | 50 mF |

DC-link activation threshold voltage | 1.1 p.u. |

Transmission Lines | |

Length | 30 km |

Line impedance | 0.01 + j0.1 Ω/km |

Resistance of grid side filter | 0.3 p.u. |

Reactance of grid side filter | 0.003 p.u. |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Naderi, S.B.; Davari, P.; Zhou, D.; Negnevitsky, M.; Blaabjerg, F. A Review on Fault Current Limiting Devices to Enhance the Fault Ride-Through Capability of the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Based Wind Turbine. *Appl. Sci.* **2018**, *8*, 2059.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112059

**AMA Style**

Naderi SB, Davari P, Zhou D, Negnevitsky M, Blaabjerg F. A Review on Fault Current Limiting Devices to Enhance the Fault Ride-Through Capability of the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Based Wind Turbine. *Applied Sciences*. 2018; 8(11):2059.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112059

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Naderi, Seyed Behzad, Pooya Davari, Dao Zhou, Michael Negnevitsky, and Frede Blaabjerg. 2018. "A Review on Fault Current Limiting Devices to Enhance the Fault Ride-Through Capability of the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Based Wind Turbine" *Applied Sciences* 8, no. 11: 2059.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112059