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Open AccessArticle

Unified Friction Formulation from Laminar to Fully Rough Turbulent Flow

by 1,2,* and 1,3,*
1
European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Directorate C—Energy, Transport and Climate, Unit C3: Energy Security, Distribution and Markets, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra (VA), Italy
2
Alfatec, Bulevar Nikole Tesle 63/5, 18000 Niš, Serbia
3
IT4Innovations National Supercomputing Center, VŠB—Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 2172/15, 708 00 Ostrava, Czech Republic
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 2036; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112036
Received: 14 September 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 20 October 2018 / Published: 24 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanical Engineering)
This paper provides a new unified formula for Newtonian fluids valid for all pipe flow regimes from laminar to fully rough turbulent flow. This includes laminar flow; the unstable sharp jump from laminar to turbulent flow; and all types of turbulent regimes, including the smooth turbulent regime, the partial non-fully developed turbulent regime, and the fully developed rough turbulent regime. The new unified formula follows the inflectional form of curves suggested in Nikuradse’s experiment rather than the monotonic shape proposed by Colebrook and White. The composition of the proposed unified formula uses switching functions and interchangeable formulas for the laminar, smooth turbulent, and fully rough turbulent flow regimes. Thus, the formulation presented below represents a coherent hydraulic model suitable for engineering use. This new flow friction model is more flexible than existing literature models and provides smooth and computationally cheap transitions between hydraulic regimes. View Full-Text
Keywords: turbulent flow; laminar flow; pipes; friction factor; hydraulics; monotonic roughness; inflectional roughness; smooth curve contact; Moody diagram; hydraulic resistance turbulent flow; laminar flow; pipes; friction factor; hydraulics; monotonic roughness; inflectional roughness; smooth curve contact; Moody diagram; hydraulic resistance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Brkić, D.; Praks, P. Unified Friction Formulation from Laminar to Fully Rough Turbulent Flow. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 2036. https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112036

AMA Style

Brkić D, Praks P. Unified Friction Formulation from Laminar to Fully Rough Turbulent Flow. Applied Sciences. 2018; 8(11):2036. https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112036

Chicago/Turabian Style

Brkić, Dejan; Praks, Pavel. 2018. "Unified Friction Formulation from Laminar to Fully Rough Turbulent Flow" Appl. Sci. 8, no. 11: 2036. https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112036

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