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Review

Biogas Plants in Renewable Energy Systems—A Systematic Review of Modeling Approaches of Biogas Production

1
Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science, Osnabrück University of Applied Sciences, Albrechtstraße 30, 49076 Osnabrück, Germany
2
Faculty III—Process Sciences, Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin, Germany
3
Faculty of Management, Culture and Technology (Lingen Campus), Osnabrück University of Applied Sciences, Kaiserstraße 10C, 49809 Lingen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Elena Tamburini and Stefania Costa
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 3361; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083361
Received: 28 February 2021 / Revised: 26 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 April 2021 / Published: 8 April 2021
Biogas production is a relevant component in renewable energy systems. The paper addresses modeling approaches from an energy system, as well as from a process optimization, point of view. Model approaches of biogas production show different levels of detail. They can be classified as white, gray, and black box, or bottom-up and top-down approaches. On the one hand, biogas modeling can supply dynamic information on the anaerobic digestion process, e.g., to predict biogas yields or to optimize the anaerobic digestion process. These models are characterized by a bottom-up approach with different levels of detail: the comprehensive ADM1 (white box), simplifications and abstractions of AD models (gray box), or highly simplified process descriptions (black box). On the other hand, biogas production is included in energy system models. These models usually supply aggregated information on regional biogas potentials and greenhouse gas emissions. They are characterized by a top-down approach with a low level of detail. Most energy system models reported in literature are based on black box approaches. Considering the strengths and weaknesses of the integration of detailed and deeply investigated process models in energy system models reveals the opportunity to develop dynamic and fluctuating business models of biogas usage. View Full-Text
Keywords: biogas; modeling; anaerobic digestion; energy system; geoinformation system; GIS; life cycle assessment; LCA; greenhouse gas emissions biogas; modeling; anaerobic digestion; energy system; geoinformation system; GIS; life cycle assessment; LCA; greenhouse gas emissions
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MDPI and ACS Style

Heiker, M.; Kraume, M.; Mertins, A.; Wawer, T.; Rosenberger, S. Biogas Plants in Renewable Energy Systems—A Systematic Review of Modeling Approaches of Biogas Production. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 3361. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083361

AMA Style

Heiker M, Kraume M, Mertins A, Wawer T, Rosenberger S. Biogas Plants in Renewable Energy Systems—A Systematic Review of Modeling Approaches of Biogas Production. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(8):3361. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083361

Chicago/Turabian Style

Heiker, Mathias, Matthias Kraume, Anica Mertins, Tim Wawer, and Sandra Rosenberger. 2021. "Biogas Plants in Renewable Energy Systems—A Systematic Review of Modeling Approaches of Biogas Production" Applied Sciences 11, no. 8: 3361. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083361

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