Calculation of Agro-Climatic Factors from Global Climatic Data
2. Related Works
2.1. Temperature-Related Agro-Climatic Factors
2.2. Solar Radiation-Related Agro-Climatic Factors
2.3. Water-Cycle Related Agro-Climatic Factors
2.4. Comprehensive Studies
- The average number of frost days from the years 1981–2010 (number of days with the minimum daily temperature below 0 °C) and the average number of ice days (number of days with the maximum daily temperature below 0 °C).
- The late frost risk (the map shows the occurrence of a minimum daily temperature below 0 °C for five consecutive days with an average daily temperature above 10 °C in a row) and the late significant frost risk (daily temperatures below 0 °C for five consecutive days with an average daily temperature above 15 °C in a row expressed as a percentage of years in the reference period when this condition occurred for 1 or more days).
- Also, maps focused on high temperatures are produced: Extremes—temperature above 35 °C in July, tropical days (average annual number of days with the maximum daily air temperature above 30 °C), risk of temperature stress—degree of alertness (the map shows the average number of days with temperature index > = 27 °C), risk of hot or/and dry periods.
- Next, a map of the length of the growing summer season demonstrates the average length of the growing summer (continuous period with an average daily temperature above 15 °C). A map of the length of the growing season shows the length of the growing season (continuous period with an average daily temperature above 5 °C).
- Also, precipitation data are processed, and average annual precipitation, daily total precipitation over 5 mm, daily total precipitation over 10 mm, average total precipitation in summer maps are created. The Institute has developed many maps focused on deficits and changes in water storage, for example, changes in a landscape water regime, changes in a landscape water regime during the growing period (April-September). These changes were calculated as the difference between precipitation and reference evapotranspiration during the whole year or season.
2.5. Common Grounds for Agro-Climatic Factors Calculation
- The previous works calculate agro-climatic factors mostly from data of local weather stations-the used input climate data are usually not global. Therefore, our approach aims to evaluate global climatic data suitability.
- The inverse distance weighted interpolation (IDW) is generally used as an interpolation method. Therefore it is used in our study as well.
- The calculations are often just briefly indicated, not described in detail. Therefore we aim to describe each agro-climatic factor in detail (see the link to GitHub provided in Supplementary Materials).
- Isopleths are commonly used to visualize the calculated agro-climatic factors. Thus we follow the same approach.
- Calculated for a set of the year but hard to repeat as it is not running as an on-demand service. On the contrary, algorithms that we publish allow everybody to recalculate the factors on demand.
- From air temperature: Frost-free periods, growing degree units, heat stress units, number of (optimal) growing degree days,
- From soil temperature: The nitrogen application window,
- From incident sunlight: Accumulated solar radiation,
- From precipitation, evapotranspiration, and runoff data: Water balance.
3. Materials and Methods
3.1.1. ERA5-Land Hourly Data from 1981 to Present
3.1.2. ERA5 Ensemble of Data Assimilations (ERA5 EDA)
3.1.3. Case Study Area in Kojčice
3.1.4. Case Study Area in the Pilsen Region
3.2.1. Frost-Free Periods
3.2.2. Crop Growth-Related Temperatures
3.2.3. Uncertainty of Input Variables
3.2.4. Uncertainty of Calculated Agro-Climatic Factors
4.1. Uncertainty of Input Temperatures
4.2. Accuracy of the Global Climatic Data Evaluated Using In-Situ Sensors
4.3. Uncertainty of Calculated Agro-Climatic Factors
5. Findings and Discussion
Conflicts of Interest
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Jedlička, K.; Valeš, J.; Hájek, P.; Kepka, M.; Pitoňák, M. Calculation of Agro-Climatic Factors from Global Climatic Data. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 1245. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11031245
Jedlička K, Valeš J, Hájek P, Kepka M, Pitoňák M. Calculation of Agro-Climatic Factors from Global Climatic Data. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(3):1245. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11031245Chicago/Turabian Style
Jedlička, Karel, Jiří Valeš, Pavel Hájek, Michal Kepka, and Martin Pitoňák. 2021. "Calculation of Agro-Climatic Factors from Global Climatic Data" Applied Sciences 11, no. 3: 1245. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11031245