Next Issue
Volume 7, July
Previous Issue
Volume 7, May

Table of Contents

Environments, Volume 7, Issue 6 (June 2020) – 9 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) The majority of municipal wastewater treatment plants in Sweden produce biogas from sewage sludge. [...] Read more.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Potential for Renewable Utilization in Kosovo Power Sector
Environments 2020, 7(6), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments7060049 - 24 Jun 2020
Viewed by 812
Abstract
The reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and the decarbonization of the power sector through the utilization of available renewable technologies are challenging issues that Kosovo has to tackle right now, in order to fight the high pollution caused by a coal-based power system. [...] Read more.
The reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and the decarbonization of the power sector through the utilization of available renewable technologies are challenging issues that Kosovo has to tackle right now, in order to fight the high pollution caused by a coal-based power system. Around 91.43% of installed capacities for electricity generation in Kosovo are based on coal-fired power plants. The aim of this paper is to show the potential for renewable utilization, using data measurements of wind, solar irradiation, biomass, and average water flows at different area locations to identify their utilization potential. Furthermore, a review on the currently available and future renewable energy projects integrated into the electricity sector is presented. A 54% carbon dioxide emission reduction potential was estimated in the power sector when considering maximum utilization potential of biomass, wind, solar renewable energies compared to a referent scenario. The results obtained from this review have shown the pathways for identifying the potential utilization of renewable as well as the actual and planned use of renewable implemented projects into the Kosovo Power Sector. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Acute Toxicity of Sodium Chloride, Nitrates, Ortho-Phosphates, Cadmium, Arsenic and Aluminum for Juveniles of the Freshwater Pearl Mussel: Margaritifera Margaritifera (L.1758)
Environments 2020, 7(6), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments7060048 - 23 Jun 2020
Viewed by 623
Abstract
The freshwater pearl mussel (FWPM) Margaritifera margaritifera (L.1758) is critically endangered in Europe and ecotoxicological studies on the species are scares. Here, 96 h acute toxicity tests were conducted at 16 °C with sodium chloride (NaCl), nitrates (NO3), ortho-phosphates (PO [...] Read more.
The freshwater pearl mussel (FWPM) Margaritifera margaritifera (L.1758) is critically endangered in Europe and ecotoxicological studies on the species are scares. Here, 96 h acute toxicity tests were conducted at 16 °C with sodium chloride (NaCl), nitrates (NO3), ortho-phosphates (PO43−), cadmium (Cd), aluminum (Al) and arsenic (As) on 13- to 28-month-old post-parasitic juveniles. The experimental protocol was developed according to conditions described in a standard guide and was modified in order to assess toxicity thresholds for the Dronne River. Results showed that juveniles were tolerant to concentrations of Al, Cd, As, PO43−, NO3 and NaCl, largely higher than those found in the Dronne river, since 96 h EC50s (effective concentrations) were >954 µg/L for Al; >110 µg/L for Cd; >127 µg/L for As; >5.01 mg/L for PO43−; between 1000 and 1500 mg/L for NO3 and were 1.19 and 1.33 g/L for NaCl. Moreover, the use of a substrate in experiments was found not to affect juvenile responses and younger juveniles seemed more sensitive than older individuals. This study thus provides new data about the tolerance of FWPM to environmental pollution and suggests that pollutant concentrations in the river are significantly lower than levels affecting them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Impacts of Toxic Metals in Aquatic Environments)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
UV Light-Irradiated Photocatalytic Degradation of Coffee Processing Wastewater Using TiO2 as a Catalyst
Environments 2020, 7(6), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments7060047 - 19 Jun 2020
Viewed by 661
Abstract
The coffee industry generates a significant amount of wastewater that is rich in organic loads and is highly acidic. The present study investigates the potential of the heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation process to reduce the pollutant load in coffee processing wastewater. The experimental runs [...] Read more.
The coffee industry generates a significant amount of wastewater that is rich in organic loads and is highly acidic. The present study investigates the potential of the heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation process to reduce the pollutant load in coffee processing wastewater. The experimental runs were conducted to evaluate the effect of operative parameters such as pH, catalyst dosage, intensity of UV light irradiation, and addition of oxidant on Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and colour reduction. Significant results for COD and colour removal, 67%, and 70% respectively, were achieved at a pH of 4 with titanium dioxide (TiO2), and a catalyst dosage of 500 mg/L, using four ultraviolet-C (UV-C) lamps of 16 W each. With the addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an oxidant, the removal efficiency increased to 84% and 75% for COD and colour, respectively. Finally, the best results obtained by photocatalytic degradation using UV light were compared to those using solar light. Based on the investigation, it was inferred that the pollutant removal efficiency in coffee pulping wastewater was also considerably high under sunlight. These findings may have relevance in terms of application in countries where coffee processing is carried out and where sunlight irradiance is usually strong: the technique could be exploited to decrease the pollutant content of this wastewater sustainably. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Technologies for Advanced Water Purification)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
New Insights into Cellular Impacts of Metals in Aquatic Animals
Environments 2020, 7(6), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments7060046 - 16 Jun 2020
Viewed by 780
Abstract
Toxic metals remain a current important threat to aquatic ecosystems, despite regulatory efforts to reduce their release. Several toxic metals already appear in the list of priority substances polluting surface waters, while concerns arise from the increasing use of technology-critical metals such as [...] Read more.
Toxic metals remain a current important threat to aquatic ecosystems, despite regulatory efforts to reduce their release. Several toxic metals already appear in the list of priority substances polluting surface waters, while concerns arise from the increasing use of technology-critical metals such as metallic nanoparticles, rare-earth, and platinum group metals. In aquatic environments, various chemical, biological and physical processes determine the impact of metals on the biota. This review provides insights into responses to toxic metals recently reported in freshwater and marine animals. The specific emphasis is on: (i) common cellular and molecular responses; (ii) stress proteins; (iii) redox homeostasis; (iv) cytoskeleton rearrangement; (v) metabolism reshuffle; (vi) free cellular energy and mitochondrial metabolism; and (vi) immunity. These endpoints are promising, notably in multi-biomarker approaches to identify precise cellular toxicity pathways and anticipate the impact of environmental metal pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Impacts of Toxic Metals in Aquatic Environments)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial
Preface to “Physical Agents: Measurement Methods, Modelling and Mitigations”
Environments 2020, 7(6), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments7060045 - 15 Jun 2020
Viewed by 684
Abstract
Physical agents (noise, vibration, ionizing, and non-ionizing radiation) are playing an increasing role in environmental protection and health [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Agents: Measurement Methods, Modelling and Mitigations)
Open AccessArticle
CBPR Partnerships and Near-Roadway Pollution: A Promising Strategy to Influence the Translation of Research into Practice
Environments 2020, 7(6), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments7060044 - 10 Jun 2020
Viewed by 716
Abstract
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) aims to engage those traditionally left out of the research process. Partnering with community stakeholders to design, plan, implement and disseminate research can facilitate translation into practice. Using qualitative research methods, we set out to explore the policy and [...] Read more.
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) aims to engage those traditionally left out of the research process. Partnering with community stakeholders to design, plan, implement and disseminate research can facilitate translation into practice. Using qualitative research methods, we set out to explore the policy and practice implications of a CBPR partnership focused on reducing exposure to near-roadway pollution. Key Informant interviews (n = 13) were conducted with individuals from various entities (municipal, state and private) for whom partners to the Community Assessment of Freeway Exposure and Health (CAFEH) provided technical assistance between 2013 and 2017. The findings indicate community research partnerships may have the power to inform local planning efforts. Developers and planners who the partnership consulted indicated a greater awareness of the implications of near-roadway exposure. They also described making changes in their practice based on study findings. The CAFEH partnership has demonstrated active attention to translating knowledge can influence local planning and practice, albeit with some challenges. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Potentially Toxic Elements in Urban Soils of Havana, Cuba
Environments 2020, 7(6), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments7060043 - 09 Jun 2020
Viewed by 911
Abstract
Urban soils are characterised by a strong anthropogenic influence. Potentially toxic elements were studied in various horizons of 35 urban soils in Havana, Cuba, classified as Urbic or Garbic Technosols. Pseudo-total, available, and acid-oxalate extractable concentrations were determined. The pseudo-total concentrations were generally [...] Read more.
Urban soils are characterised by a strong anthropogenic influence. Potentially toxic elements were studied in various horizons of 35 urban soils in Havana, Cuba, classified as Urbic or Garbic Technosols. Pseudo-total, available, and acid-oxalate extractable concentrations were determined. The pseudo-total concentrations were generally higher than the average values for the world’s soils but similar to those published for urban soils. In a few cases, very high values of copper or lead were found. Nickel and chromium concentrations exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations for agricultural soils in 22% and 12% of samples. Vanadium concentrations were always very high. There was minimum enrichment of most samples in Co, Mn, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni, but outliers reached moderate or significant enrichment. Enrichment was significant for V, while for Pb, Zn, and Hg the median values denoted moderate enrichment, but outliers reached significant enrichment in Zn and extremely high enrichment in Pb and Hg. The available elements amounted to between 0.07% of the pseudo-total vanadium and 30% lead and cadmium. The published toxicity limits for bioavailable Cd, Mn, Ni, and Pb were exceeded in 14%, 39%, 10%, and 56% of samples, respectively. The concentrations of pseudo-total total iron, cobalt, chromium, and nickel, and available cobalt, nickel and titanium were significantly lower in soils with gleyic properties (reducing conditions). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Contamination by Heavy Metals and Metalloids)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Biogas Production from Food Residues—The Role of Trace Metals and Co-Digestion with Primary Sludge
Environments 2020, 7(6), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments7060042 - 29 May 2020
Viewed by 1088
Abstract
The majority of municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) in Sweden produce biogas from sewage sludge. In order to increase the methane production, co-digestion of internal sludge with Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) might be feasible in the future. The objective of [...] Read more.
The majority of municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) in Sweden produce biogas from sewage sludge. In order to increase the methane production, co-digestion of internal sludge with Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) might be feasible in the future. The objective of this study was therefore to find a beneficial solution for the utilization of OFMSW at the WWTP in Varberg, Sweden. The effects of co-digesting primary sludge (PS) and OFMSW collected in the municipality, in different mixing ratios, were investigated by semi-continuous anaerobic digestion assays. Furthermore, the effects of the addition of a commercial trace elements mixture solution (CTES), available on the market in Sweden, were also examined. Co-digestion of OFMSW and PS resulted in specific methane yields of 404, 392, and 375 NmL CH4/g volatile solids (VS), obtained during semi-continuous operations of 301, 357 and 385 days, for the reactors fed with OMFSW:PS ratio of 4:1, 3:1, and 1:1, and at maximum organic loading rates (OLRs) achieved of 4.0, 4.0 and 5.0 gVS/L/d, respectively. Furthermore, mono-digestion of OFMSW failed already at OLR of 1.0 gVS/L/d, however, an OLR of 4.0 gVS/L/d could be achieved with addition of 14 µL/g VS Commercial Trace Element Solutions (CTES) leading to 363 mL CH4/g VS methane production. These experiments were running during 411 days. Hence, higher process efficiency was obtained when using co-digestion of OFMSW and PS compared to that of OFMSW in mono-digestion. Co-digestion is a more feasible option where a balanced Carbon/Nitrogen (C/N) ratio and nutrient supply can be maintained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater and Solid Waste Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Modelling the Kinetics of Elements Release from a Zeolitic-Rich Tuff
Environments 2020, 7(6), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments7060041 - 26 May 2020
Viewed by 878
Abstract
The present investigation aims at modeling the kinetics of elements (Fe, Mg, K, Ca, Na, Al, and Si) release from zeolitic-rich Phlegraean Yellow Tuff weathered by tannic acid solutions at different concentration. Three equations were tested—power function, the Weber–Morris model, and the Elovich [...] Read more.
The present investigation aims at modeling the kinetics of elements (Fe, Mg, K, Ca, Na, Al, and Si) release from zeolitic-rich Phlegraean Yellow Tuff weathered by tannic acid solutions at different concentration. Three equations were tested—power function, the Weber–Morris model, and the Elovich equation. Power function was revealed to be an excellent empirical equation well fitted to the experimental data. Its numerical parameters were suitable predictive tools, highlighting both the intensity and modality of weathering processes. By paralleling the dissolution rates, it was possible to allow rock-sources from which elements were released during three distinct weathering stages—(i) the first stage was dominated by biotite and amorphous weathering, (ii) the second stage also started with the breakdown of zeolite framework; and (iii) in the third stage, the whole of weathering/release process approached a steady state. Finally, these outcomes may be used to forecast the pedogenic/nutritional potential of zeolitic-rich tuffs as pedotechnical matrices in restoration design. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop