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Behav. Sci., Volume 9, Issue 9 (September 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Performance in many sports relies on the optimal execution of a complex and difficult to master [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Study Design and Protocol to Assess Fruit and Vegetable Waste at School Lunches
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9090101 - 18 Sep 2019
Viewed by 354
Abstract
This paper has two main aims: (1) to describe the design, implementation, and testing of a protocol to assess longitudinal changes in F&V plate waste conducted as part of a quasi-experimental study, (2) to provide baseline descriptive data on school demographics and study [...] Read more.
This paper has two main aims: (1) to describe the design, implementation, and testing of a protocol to assess longitudinal changes in F&V plate waste conducted as part of a quasi-experimental study, (2) to provide baseline descriptive data on school demographics and study participants. This paper describes the protocol development and implementation, and presents baseline data of a longitudinal fruit and vegetable (F&V) plate waste study. The protocol was developed to determine the preliminary impact of Brighter Bites, a 16-week school-based nutrition intervention, on F&V wasted and nutrients wasted from school lunches. We measured plate waste using a quasi-experimental design (n = 2 intervention schools receiving Brighter Bites, n=1 comparison school; n = 115 4th and 5th grade children). We measured plate waste for five days at each of four time points over the 2017–2018 academic year (baseline prior to intervention, three additional time points). Data collectors measured lunch F&V waste using digital scales and recorded weights on a data collection app. This study was conducted in three central Texas public elementary schools serving predominantly low-income families (>89% of children on free/reduced lunch program). On average, at baseline, 59.1% of all F&V were wasted and children tried <1 F&V at meals. Foods most wasted were legumes and foods least wasted were par-fried baked potatoes. Final retention rate across the four time points was 75.70%. Measurement inter-rater reliability was 100% (r = 0.99). Our study presents a protocol for detailed, individual-level, longitudinal plate waste assessment in elementary schools. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Turkish Adaptation of the Positive–Negative Relationship Quality (PN-RQ) Scale: A Reliability and Validity Study
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9090100 - 15 Sep 2019
Viewed by 409
Abstract
Background: The present study investigates the reliability and validity of the Positive–Negative Relationship Quality (PN-RQ) scale in Turkey. This study aims to test different factorial models including orthogonal factors model, correlated factors model, one-factor model, and bifactor model. Methods: In order to determine [...] Read more.
Background: The present study investigates the reliability and validity of the Positive–Negative Relationship Quality (PN-RQ) scale in Turkey. This study aims to test different factorial models including orthogonal factors model, correlated factors model, one-factor model, and bifactor model. Methods: In order to determine the validity and reliability of the scale, two studies were performed. The first was carried out with emerging adults (university students) who were in a romantic relationship (148 females, 43 males, and 2 unknown) and had the main purpose to examine the structure validity of the measurement tool in the Turkish sample with an exploratory analysis. Study 2 was performed online with 513 married adults (359 females, 149 males, and 5 unknown); confirmatory findings and criterion validity studies were added. Results: Exploratory factor analyses revealed that relationship quality had a two-factor structure and that there was also a negative relationship between the factors. Confirmatory factor analyses on the married sample showed that the bi-factor model provided evidence for the multidimensional nature of the scale. Both studies demonstrated high internal consistency. Conclusion: There is evidence for reliability and validity in the Turkish version of the PN-RQ scale to measure both positive and negative aspects of the relationship. The PN-RQ scale will be highly functional for social and clinical psychologists who work on close relationship issues in Turkey. Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report
Neuroinflammation and Neuromodulation in Neurological Diseases
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9090099 - 12 Sep 2019
Viewed by 555
Abstract
Neuroimmunology is a relatively young science. This discipline has emerged today from the research field as a mature and fully developed innovative research area that integrates not only pure topics of neuroimmunology, but also expands on wider fields such as neuroplasticity, neuronal reserve [...] Read more.
Neuroimmunology is a relatively young science. This discipline has emerged today from the research field as a mature and fully developed innovative research area that integrates not only pure topics of neuroimmunology, but also expands on wider fields such as neuroplasticity, neuronal reserve and neuromodulation in association with clinical events, amongst which behavioral disorders stand out. The Cuban School of Neuroimmunology—a recent meeting that took place in Havana, Cuba—focused on topics based on the molecular mechanisms of neuroinflammation in neurological disorders involving behavioral manifestations, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), autism, cerebellar ataxias, Alzheimer´s disease and stroke among others, as well as on the use of new interventional technologies in neurology. Professor Luis Velazquez, from the Cuban Academy of Sciences, dictated an interesting lecture on Spinocerebellar ataxias, a genetic disorder where recent hypotheses related to the influence of neuroinflammation as a neurobiological factor influencing the progression of this disease have emerged. At the same time, the use of new interventional technologies in neurology was discussed, including those referring to novel disease modifying therapies in the course of MS and the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation in several neurological diseases, the latter reinforcing how interventional strategies in the form of non-invasive bran stimulation can contribute to physical rehabilitation in neurology. This paper summarizes the highlights of the most relevant topics presented during the First Cuban School of Neuroimmunology, organized by the Cuban Network of Neuroimmunology, held in June 2019. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Basic to Clinical in Behavioral Disorders)
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Open AccessReview
The Bidirectional in Bilingual: Cognitive, Social and Linguistic Effects of and on Third-Age Language Learning
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9090098 - 11 Sep 2019
Viewed by 440
Abstract
Bilingualism has been put forward as a life experience that, similar to musical training or being physically active, may boost cognitive performance and slow down age-related cognitive decline. In more recent years, bilingualism has come to be acknowledged not as a trait but [...] Read more.
Bilingualism has been put forward as a life experience that, similar to musical training or being physically active, may boost cognitive performance and slow down age-related cognitive decline. In more recent years, bilingualism has come to be acknowledged not as a trait but as a highly individual experience where the context of use strongly modulates any cognitive effect that ensues from it (cf. van den Noort et al., 2019). In addition, modulating factors have been shown to interact in intricate ways (Pot, Keijzer and de Bot, 2018). Adding to the complexity is the fact that control processes linked to bilingualism are bidirectional—just as language control can influence cognitive control, individual differences in cognitive functioning often predict language learning outcomes and control. Indeed, Hartsuiker (2015) posited the need for a better understanding of cognitive control, language control as well as the transfer process between them. In this paper, we aim to shed light on the bidirectional and individual cognitive, social and linguistic factors in relation to bilingualism and second language learning, with a special focus on older adulthood: (1) we first show the intricate clustering of modulating individual factors as deterministic of cognitive outcomes of bilingual experiences at the older end of the lifespan; (2) we then present a meta-study of work in the emergent field of third-age language learning, the results of which are related to lifelong bilingualism; (3) objectives (1) and (2) are then combined to result in a blueprint for future work relating cognitive and social individual differences to bilingual linguistic outcomes and vice versa in the context of third-age language learning. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Binge Drinking among Economically Disadvantaged African American Older Adults with Diabetes
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9090097 - 11 Sep 2019
Viewed by 399
Abstract
Purpose. This study investigated the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and psychological factors as well as the role of health determinants on alcohol consumption and binge drinking among economically disadvantaged African American older adults with type 2 diabetes mellites (T2DM). Methods. This survey recruited [...] Read more.
Purpose. This study investigated the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and psychological factors as well as the role of health determinants on alcohol consumption and binge drinking among economically disadvantaged African American older adults with type 2 diabetes mellites (T2DM). Methods. This survey recruited 231 African Americans who were older adults (age 65+ years) and had T2DM. Participants were selected from economically disadvantaged areas of South Los Angeles. A structured face-to-face interview was conducted to collect data on demographic factors, objective and subjective socioeconomic status (SES) including education and financial difficulty, living arrangement, marital status, health, and drinking behaviors (drinking and binge drinking). Results. Age, gender, living alone, pain, comorbid conditions, and smoking were associated with drinking/binge drinking. Male gender, pain, and being a smoker were associated with higher odds of drinking/binge drinking, while individuals with more comorbid medical conditions had lower odds of binge drinking. Conclusion. In economically constrained urban environments, gender, pain, and smoking but not age, SES, depression, and health may predict binge drinking for African American older adults with T2DM. African Americans older adult men with T2DM with comorbid pain should be screened for binge drinking. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Psychological Barriers to Digital Living in Older Adults: Computer Anxiety as Predictive Mechanism for Technophobia
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9090096 - 11 Sep 2019
Viewed by 380
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the emotional impact of technology use in an Italian adult population and to detect technophobia. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 117 Italian participants (age range of 50–67 years). Measured variables were computer anxiety and technology use ability. [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the emotional impact of technology use in an Italian adult population and to detect technophobia. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 117 Italian participants (age range of 50–67 years). Measured variables were computer anxiety and technology use ability. The results revealed technophobia features in the Italian adult population related to inadequate management of technology. One-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni’s post-hoc analysis showed that non-autonomous (p < 0.01), low-frequency (p < 0.01), and feeling-a-need-for-help users (p < 0.01) had higher levels of computer anxiety. Based on our data, although lifelong learning is a powerful digital need, a considerable proportion of the adult population is not digitally skilled, enlarging the gap between young (native digital) and adult (digital and non-digital adults and seniors) populations. Adult inclusivity in digital living is inadequate and likely affects their quality of life. Thus, our findings highlight technophobia as a possible new risk factor for Italian adults because it can affect their daily life through low adherence to digital living; rather than aging successfully, they could develop fragile aging. Full article
Open AccessReview
A Bilingual Advantage? An Appeal for a Change in Perspective and Recommendations for Future Research
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9090095 - 04 Sep 2019
Viewed by 498
Abstract
The debate on possible cognitive advantages bilinguals have over monolinguals continues to occupy the research community. There is an ever-growing research body focusing on adjudicating whether there is, in fact, an effect of using two or more languages regularly on cognition. In this [...] Read more.
The debate on possible cognitive advantages bilinguals have over monolinguals continues to occupy the research community. There is an ever-growing research body focusing on adjudicating whether there is, in fact, an effect of using two or more languages regularly on cognition. In this paper, we briefly review some of the more pertinent literature that has attempted to identify attenuating, modulating, and confounding factors in research comparing monolingual and bilingual populations, and we highlight issues that should be taken into account in future research to move forward as a research community. At the same time, we argue for a change in perspective concerning what is deemed an advantage and what is not and argue for more ecologically valid research that investigates real-life advantages. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Revisiting Happiness and Well-Being in Later Life from Interdisciplinary Age-Studies Perspectives
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9090094 - 03 Sep 2019
Viewed by 443
Abstract
Important demographic shifts and the so-called ‘longevity revolution’ have generated profound transformations in social interpretations of old age, an increased interest in age studies and new ideas on how to age well. The majority of current successful ageing models, however, represent rather a [...] Read more.
Important demographic shifts and the so-called ‘longevity revolution’ have generated profound transformations in social interpretations of old age, an increased interest in age studies and new ideas on how to age well. The majority of current successful ageing models, however, represent rather a prevailing construct in Western societies. Physical and psychosocial well-being and the ability to adjust to the ideals of successful ageing are often seen as an integral part of a good quality in life. Those who do not or cannot follow these lines are often regarded as morally irresponsible and seem to be doomed to have a lonely, unhealthy and unhappy later life. This paper questions the current discourses of successful ageing in terms of healthy and happy living and calls for a reconsideration of more global, integrated and holistic understandings of the process of growing old. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Served Well? A Pilot Field Study on the Effects of Conveying Self-Control Strategies on Volleyball Service Performance
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9090093 - 02 Sep 2019
Viewed by 544
Abstract
Volleyball serves constitute an important example for a self-controlled sequence of actions in sports that is difficult to improve. It is therefore paramount to investigate whether and how conveying self-control strategies to athletes affects their service performance. To address this question, we conducted [...] Read more.
Volleyball serves constitute an important example for a self-controlled sequence of actions in sports that is difficult to improve. It is therefore paramount to investigate whether and how conveying self-control strategies to athletes affects their service performance. To address this question, we conducted a pilot field study with sixty-two players from four Swiss volleyball schools. They performed a warm-up and subsequently a first series of 15 serves. Objective service performance was measured in terms of errors, velocity, and precision. Afterwards, players formulated either individual goals (goal condition) or plans (plan condition) based on their coaches’ correction instructions. In a second series of 15 serves objective performance was worse in some respects compared to the first series (i.e., more errors in the plan condition, reduced precision in both conditions). Mixed-effects analyses of performance development across conditions in the second series showed initially reduced but steadily recouping precision and velocity, while the number of errors stayed constant. In contrast to the objective performance, coaches evaluated their players’ service performance during the second series of serves as substantially better than during the first series. Taken together, the results of this pilot field study suggest that conveying either goals or plans as self-control strategies may involve initial adjustment costs followed by a subsequent recovery period. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sequential Multilingualism and Cognitive Abilities: Preliminary Data on the Contribution of Language Proficiency and Use in Different Modalities
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9090092 - 26 Aug 2019
Viewed by 802
Abstract
This exploratory study focuses on sequential bi-/multilinguals (specifically, nonimmigrant young Dutch native speakers who learned at least one foreign language (FL) at or after the age of 5) and investigates the impact of proficiency-based and amount-of-use-based degrees of multilingualism in different modalities (i.e., [...] Read more.
This exploratory study focuses on sequential bi-/multilinguals (specifically, nonimmigrant young Dutch native speakers who learned at least one foreign language (FL) at or after the age of 5) and investigates the impact of proficiency-based and amount-of-use-based degrees of multilingualism in different modalities (i.e., speaking, listening, writing, reading) on inhibition, disengagement of attention, and switching. Fifty-four participants completed a comprehensive background questionnaire, a nonverbal fluid intelligence task, a Flanker task, and the Trail Making Test. Correlational and regression analyses considering multilingualism related variables and other variables that may contribute to the cognitive abilities under investigation (e.g., years of formal education, socioeconomic status, physical activity, playing video-games) revealed that only proficiency-based degrees of multilingualism impacted cognitive abilities. Particularly, mean FL writing proficiency affected inhibition (i.e., significant positive flanker effect) and L2 listening proficiency influenced disengagement of attention (i.e., significant negative sequential congruency effect). Our findings suggest that only those speakers who have reached a certain proficiency threshold in more than one FL show a cognitive advantage, which, in our sample, emerged in inhibition only. Furthermore, our study suggests that, regarding the impact of proficiency-based degrees of multilingualism on cognitive abilities, for our participants the writing and listening modalities mattered most. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Cerebral Small Vessel Disease Associated with Subclinical Vascular Damage Indicators in Asymptomatic Hypertensive Patients
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9090091 - 22 Aug 2019
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Background: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is frequent in patients with cardiovascular risk factors including arterial hypertension, and it is associated with vascular damage in other organs and the risk of stroke, cognitive impairment, and dementia. Early diagnosis of CSVD could prevent [...] Read more.
Background: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is frequent in patients with cardiovascular risk factors including arterial hypertension, and it is associated with vascular damage in other organs and the risk of stroke, cognitive impairment, and dementia. Early diagnosis of CSVD could prevent deleterious consequences. Objective: To characterize CSVD associated with indicators of subclinical vascular damage in asymptomatic hypertensive patients. Materials and Methods: Participants were hypertensive (HT) and non-hypertensive (non-HT) individuals; without signs of cerebrovascular disease, dementia, and chronic renal failure. For CSVD, white matter hyperintensities (WMH), enlarged Virchow–Robin perivascular spaces (EVRPS), lacunar infarcts, and microbleeds were investigated. Subclinical vascular damage was evaluated (hypertensive retinopathy, microalbuminuria, and extracranial carotid morphology: intima media thickness (IMT) and atheroma plaque). Results: CSVD MRI findings were more frequent in HT; as well as greater intimal thickening. The IMT and/or plaque was significantly associated with all MRI variables; but retinopathy was correlated with EVRPS and lacunar infarcts. Only microalbuminuria was related to the greater severity of WMH in HT. Multivariate analysis evidenced that CSVD was independently associated with the combination of indicators of vascular damage and systolic blood pressure. Conclusions: Combining indicators of subclinical vascular damage, such as carotid morphological variables, microalbuminuria, and hypertensive retinopathy for early detection of CSVD in asymptomatic hypertensive patients could prove to be useful to take actions for the prevention of irreversible brain damage, which could lead to cognitive impairment, dementia and stroke. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Basic to Clinical in Behavioral Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle
Educational Attainment and Subjective Health and Well-Being; Diminished Returns of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9090090 - 22 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 793
Abstract
Background: Educational attainment is one of the strongest determinants of subjective health and well-being. Minorities’ Diminished Returns, however, suggests that such an effect may be smaller for the members of racial/ethnic minorities such as Blacks and Hispanics relative to non-Hispanic Whites. Only one [...] Read more.
Background: Educational attainment is one of the strongest determinants of subjective health and well-being. Minorities’ Diminished Returns, however, suggests that such an effect may be smaller for the members of racial/ethnic minorities such as Blacks and Hispanics relative to non-Hispanic Whites. Only one study has previously shown that minorities’ diminished returns may also apply to lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals; however, that study has focused on other outcomes (i.e., obesity). Aims: To compare LGB and non-LGB American adults for the effects of educational attainment on subjective health and well-being. Methods: This cross-sectional study used baseline data of 31,480 adults in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH, 2013), a nationally representative study in the United States. The independent variable was educational attainment. The dependent variable was subjective health and well-being, measured using four items. Race, ethnicity, age, gender, poverty status, and employment were the covariates. LGB status was the moderator. Results: Overall, individuals with higher educational attainment had better subjective health and well-being. We found a significant interaction between LGB status and educational attainment which was suggestive of that the boosting effect of high educational attainment on better subjective health and well-being was systemically smaller for LGB than non-LGB individuals. Conclusions: In the United States, highly educated LGB adults experience poor subjective health and well-being, a status that is disproportionate to their educational attainment. Full article
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