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Behav. Sci., Volume 8, Issue 1 (January 2018)

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Open AccessFeature PaperConference Report Non-Clinical Contribution to Clinical Trials during Lead Optimization Phase
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8010017
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 17 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 24 January 2018
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Abstract
This manuscript comments on guidelines related to requirements for clinical trials for new drugs and the importance of considering regulatory criteria in the planning phase, in order to enhance the utility of data generated in basic research. Suggestions are made for optimizing regulatory
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This manuscript comments on guidelines related to requirements for clinical trials for new drugs and the importance of considering regulatory criteria in the planning phase, in order to enhance the utility of data generated in basic research. Suggestions are made for optimizing regulatory management to improve the likelihood of acceptance of pre-clinical data prior to Clinical Phase I trials (early clinical trials). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of Art in Non-Clinical Models for Neurodegenerative Diseases)
Open AccessFeature PaperConference Report Report on the Symposium “Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Neurodegeneration”
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8010016
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
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Abstract
The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases is currently a major concern in public health because of the lack of neuroprotective and neuroregenerative drugs. The symposium on Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Neurodegeneration held in Varadero, Cuba, updated the participants on the basic mechanisms of neurodegeneration,
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The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases is currently a major concern in public health because of the lack of neuroprotective and neuroregenerative drugs. The symposium on Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Neurodegeneration held in Varadero, Cuba, updated the participants on the basic mechanisms of neurodegeneration, on the different approaches for drug discovery, and on early research results on therapeutic approaches for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer’s disease and in silico research were covered by many of the presentations in the symposium, under the umbrella of the “State of the Art of Non-clinical Models for Neurodegenerative Diseases” International Congress, held from 20 to 24 June 2017. This paper summarizes the highlights of the symposium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of Art in Non-Clinical Models for Neurodegenerative Diseases)
Open AccessReview C-Phycocyanin and Phycocyanobilin as Remyelination Therapies for Enhancing Recovery in Multiple Sclerosis and Ischemic Stroke: A Preclinical Perspective
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8010015
Received: 16 November 2017 / Revised: 3 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
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Abstract
Myelin loss has a crucial impact on behavior disabilities associated to Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Ischemic Stroke (IS). Although several MS therapies are approved, none of them promote remyelination in patients, limiting their ability for chronic recovery. With no available therapeutic options, enhanced
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Myelin loss has a crucial impact on behavior disabilities associated to Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Ischemic Stroke (IS). Although several MS therapies are approved, none of them promote remyelination in patients, limiting their ability for chronic recovery. With no available therapeutic options, enhanced demyelination in stroke survivors is correlated with a poorer behavioral recovery. Here, we show the experimental findings of our group and others supporting the remyelinating effects of C-Phycocyanin (C-PC), the main biliprotein of Spirulina platensis and its linked tetrapyrrole Phycocyanobilin (PCB), in models of these illnesses. C-PC promoted white matter regeneration in rats and mice affected by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Electron microscopy analysis in cerebral cortex from ischemic rats revealed a potent remyelinating action of PCB treatment after stroke. Among others biological processes, we discussed the role of regulatory T cell induction, the control of oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory mediators, gene expression modulation and COX-2 inhibition as potential mechanisms involved in the C-PC and PCB effects on the recruitment, differentiation and maturation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells in demyelinated lesions. The assembled evidence supports the implementation of clinical trials to demonstrate the recovery effects of C-PC and PCB in these diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of Art in Non-Clinical Models for Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of the Response of Male BALB/c and C57BL/6 Mice in Behavioral Tasks to Evaluate Cognitive Function
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8010014
Received: 20 November 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
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Abstract
To evaluate several cognitive parameters during the execution of behavioral tasks assessing cognitive function in laboratory animals, the parameters are reported within a range. This situation entails that each laboratory must establish the conditions under which the behavioral task to evaluate the cognitive
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To evaluate several cognitive parameters during the execution of behavioral tasks assessing cognitive function in laboratory animals, the parameters are reported within a range. This situation entails that each laboratory must establish the conditions under which the behavioral task to evaluate the cognitive function can be carried out. C57BL/6 and BALB/c inbred strains are used more often in behavioral studies relating to anxiety, stress, fear and cognitive function. The aim of this work was to compare the behavioral response of mice of the strains BALB/c and C57BL/6 to evaluate memory and learning as cognitive functions. Young male mice, 7–8 weeks of age, from each strain were used. Y maze, object recognition and passive avoidance tasks were performed. Both strains of mice showed differences in the response to the passive avoidance and Y maze task. This study advances knowledge about the baseline behavior of laboratory mice strains and their response during the experimental procedures, which are due to the treatment, genetic influence, procedural differences, genetic background variance, or any combination of these elements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of Art in Non-Clinical Models for Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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Open AccessReview Sophisticated Fowl: The Complex Behaviour and Cognitive Skills of Chickens and Red Junglefowl
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8010013
Received: 1 October 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 12 January 2018 / Published: 17 January 2018
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Abstract
The world’s most numerous bird, the domestic chicken, and their wild ancestor, the red junglefowl, have long been used as model species for animal behaviour research. Recently, this research has advanced our understanding of the social behaviour, personality, and cognition of fowl, and
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The world’s most numerous bird, the domestic chicken, and their wild ancestor, the red junglefowl, have long been used as model species for animal behaviour research. Recently, this research has advanced our understanding of the social behaviour, personality, and cognition of fowl, and demonstrated their sophisticated behaviour and cognitive skills. Here, we overview some of this research, starting with describing research investigating the well-developed senses of fowl, before presenting how socially and cognitively complex they can be. The realisation that domestic chickens, our most abundant production animal, are behaviourally and cognitively sophisticated should encourage an increase in general appraise and fascination towards them. In turn, this should inspire increased use of them as both research and hobby animals, as well as improvements in their unfortunately often poor welfare. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Academic Stress and Self-Regulation among University Students in Malaysia: Mediator Role of Mindfulness
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8010012
Received: 29 October 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
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Abstract
Academic stress is the most common emotional or mental state that students experience during their studies. Stress is a result of a wide range of issues, including test and exam burden, a demanding course, a different educational system, and thinking about future plans
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Academic stress is the most common emotional or mental state that students experience during their studies. Stress is a result of a wide range of issues, including test and exam burden, a demanding course, a different educational system, and thinking about future plans upon graduation. A sizeable body of literature in stress management research has found that self-regulation and being mindful will help students to cope up with the stress and dodge long-term negative consequences, such as substance abuse. The present study aims to investigate the influence of academic stress, self-regulation, and mindfulness among undergraduate students in Klang Valley, Malaysia, and to identify mindfulness as the mediator between academic stress and self-regulation. For this study, a total of 384 undergraduate students in Klang Valley, Malaysia were recruited. Using Correlational analysis, results revealed that there was a significant relationship between academic stress, self-regulation, and mindfulness. However, using SPSS mediational analysis, mindfulness did not prove the mediator role in the study. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Application of Adaptive Behaviour Models: A Systematic Review
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8010011
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
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Abstract
Adaptive behaviour has been viewed broadly as an individual’s ability to meet the standards of social responsibilities and independence; however, this definition has been a source of debate amongst researchers and clinicians. Based on the rich history and the importance of the construct
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Adaptive behaviour has been viewed broadly as an individual’s ability to meet the standards of social responsibilities and independence; however, this definition has been a source of debate amongst researchers and clinicians. Based on the rich history and the importance of the construct of adaptive behaviour, the current study aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of the application of adaptive behaviour models to assessment tools, through a systematic review. A plethora of assessment measures for adaptive behaviour have been developed in order to adequately assess the construct; however, it appears that the only definition on which authors seem to agree is that adaptive behaviour is what adaptive behaviour scales measure. The importance of the construct for diagnosis, intervention and planning has been highlighted throughout the literature. It is recommended that researchers and clinicians critically review what measures of adaptive behaviour they are utilising and it is suggested that the definition and theory is revisited. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Extreme Overvalued Beliefs: How Violent Extremist Beliefs Become “Normalized”
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8010010
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
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Abstract
Extreme overvalued beliefs (EOB) are rigidly held, non-deusional beliefs that are the motive behind most acts of terrorism and mass shootings. EOBs are differentiated from delusions and obsessions. The concept of an overvalued idea was first described by Wernicke and later applied to
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Extreme overvalued beliefs (EOB) are rigidly held, non-deusional beliefs that are the motive behind most acts of terrorism and mass shootings. EOBs are differentiated from delusions and obsessions. The concept of an overvalued idea was first described by Wernicke and later applied to terrorism by McHugh. Our group of forensic psychiatrists (Rahman, Resnick, Harry) refined the definition as an aid in the differential diagnosis seen in acts of violence. The form and content of EOBs is discussed as well as group effects, conformity, and obedience to authority. Religious cults such as The People’s Temple, Heaven’s Gate, Aum Shinrikyo, and Islamic State (ISIS) and conspiracy beliefs such as assassinations, moon-hoax, and vaccine-induced autism beliefs are discussed using this construct. Finally, some concluding thoughts on countering violent extremism, including its online presence is discussed utilizing information learned from online eating disorders and consumer experience. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Intention to be Physically Active in Sedentary Obese Children: A Longitudinal Study
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8010009
Received: 18 November 2017 / Revised: 6 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
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Abstract
Obese children are usually less active than their normal-weight counterparts, although the reasons for this remain unclear. The objective of the present study was to determine how a long-term program (3 years of intervention and 6 months of follow-up detraining) of physical exercise
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Obese children are usually less active than their normal-weight counterparts, although the reasons for this remain unclear. The objective of the present study was to determine how a long-term program (3 years of intervention and 6 months of follow-up detraining) of physical exercise with or without a low calorie diet influenced sedentary obese children’s intention to be physically active. The participants were 27 children, ages from 8 to 11 years, who formed two groups according to the program that they followed. One group followed an exercise program (three 90-min sessions per week), and the other this same exercise program together with a hypocaloric diet. The intention to be physically active was assessed via the Measurement of Intention to be Physically Active (MIFA) questionnaire. The subjects’ scores at different times of the program (baseline, Year 3, and detraining) were compared using a repeated-measures ANOVA, and a post-hoc Tukey’s test was applied to confirm the differences. After both the intervention and detraining, both groups showed greater intention to be physically active. This suggests the suitability of long-term physical exercise to generate greater intention to be physically active and thus establish healthy life habits including increased levels of physical activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Social Support, Religious Endorsement, and Career Commitment: A Study on Saudi Nurses
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8010008
Received: 19 November 2017 / Revised: 7 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 10 January 2018
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Abstract
The present study investigates the effect of perceived social support (PSS) and perceived religious endorsement (PRE) on career commitment (CC) of Saudi nurses. The investigation also extends to the moderating role of different demographic and organizational factors in the extent of PSS, and
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The present study investigates the effect of perceived social support (PSS) and perceived religious endorsement (PRE) on career commitment (CC) of Saudi nurses. The investigation also extends to the moderating role of different demographic and organizational factors in the extent of PSS, and career commitment these nurses report. Data required for meeting these study objectives were collected from male and female Saudi nurses through a structured questionnaire. Multiple regressions using Partial Least Squares based Structural Equation Model, Smart-PLS version 3.0, and independent sample t-test using SPSS version 22.0, were used to analyze data. The study findings reveal that both perceived social support and perceived religious endorsement are important antecedents of career commitment of Saudi nurses. However, private-sector nurses are found to exhibit a significantly higher level of career commitment compared to their public-sector counterparts. Nurses with greater educational attainment perceive higher level of social support and express greater career commitment than their less educated peers. These findings suggest that nursing as a profession should be more openly discussed in both secular and religious contexts, to ensure an adequate level of respect and compassion on behalf of the public. In particular, endorsement from the individual nurses’ social networks is vital in maintaining their wellbeing and career commitment. Given the religious influence in all aspects of life in the Saudi society, the current practice of gender-based segregation in Saudi hospitals and clinics seems to be meaningful for sustaining the career commitment of the nurses. Full article
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Open AccessOpinion Dancing with Gravity—Why the Sense of Balance Is (the) Fundamental
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8010007
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 2 January 2018 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 5 January 2018
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Abstract
The sense of balance, which is usually barely noticeable in the background of each of our movements, only becomes manifest in its function during intense stimulation or in the event of illness, which may quite literally turn your world upside down. While it
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The sense of balance, which is usually barely noticeable in the background of each of our movements, only becomes manifest in its function during intense stimulation or in the event of illness, which may quite literally turn your world upside down. While it is true that balance is becoming a bigger issue, that is mainly because people are losing it more frequently. So why is balance not as commonly talked about in psychology, medicine or the arts as the other five traditional senses? This is partly due to its unusual multi-modal nature, whereby three sensory inputs are coordinated and integrated by the central nervous system. Without it, however, we might not have much use for the other senses. The sense of balance encompasses the bodily experience in its entirety. Not only do we act with the body, we may also think and feel through it and with it. Bodily states are not simply effects of cognition; they cause it as well. Equilibrioception is an essential sense and it is interconnected with a wide range of other areas, including cognition, perception, embodiment, the autonomic nervous system, aesthetics, the arts, and education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Embodied Aesthetics and Interpersonal Resonance)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Relationship between Self-Reported Executive Functioning and Risk-Taking Behavior in Urban Homeless Youth
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8010006
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 21 December 2017 / Published: 3 January 2018
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Abstract
Introduction: Almost 2 million U.S. youth are estimated to live on the streets, in shelters, or in other types of temporary housing at some point each year. Both their age and living situations make them more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors, particularly
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Introduction: Almost 2 million U.S. youth are estimated to live on the streets, in shelters, or in other types of temporary housing at some point each year. Both their age and living situations make them more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors, particularly during adolescence, a time of increased risk taking. Much of self-control appears related to the development of the prefrontal cortex, which is at a particularly crucial period of elaboration and refinement during adolescence and emerging adulthood. Executive processes like decision-making, inhibition, planning, and reasoning may be vulnerable to adversity experienced as a result of homelessness and related impoverishment during childhood and adolescence. No study to date, to our knowledge, has directly investigated differences in risk-taking by homeless youth as it relates to their developing executive control. Objective: Examine the relationship between the level of self-reported executive function (EF) and engagement in risk taking behaviors among a sample of shelter-living urban homeless youth. We predicted that homeless youth who have lower levels of self-reported EF would more readily engage in risky behaviors that could lead to negative outcomes. Participants: One hundred and forty-nine youths between 18 and 22 years of age were recruited from homeless agencies in Chicago. Of this study sample, 53% were female and 76% African American. Measures: All participants completed, as part of a broader neuropsychological assessment, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Version (BRIEF-A), the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Analyses: Groups were separated based on level of self-reported EF, with two groups identified: High self-reported EF fell >1 SD above the normative average, and low self-reported EF fell >1 SD below the normative average. All analyses utilized Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. Results and Conclusions: Analyses revealed a relationship between the level of self-reported EF and risk taking behaviors in this group of sheltered homeless urban youths. Those with lower self-reported executive functioning had higher rates of engagement in multiple substance-related risk taking behaviors. These findings are important because they are a first step towards identifying contributions to risk-taking behavior in urban homeless youths. Identifying potential factors like low self-reported EF better allows us to potentially intervene, thereby providing focused support to youths who are at higher risk for engaging in problematic behaviors. Full article
Open AccessPerspective The EFPA Test-Review Model: When Good Intentions Meet a Methodological Thought Disorder
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8010005
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 27 December 2017 / Published: 31 December 2017
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Abstract
The European Federation of Psychologists’ Associations (EFPA) has issued sets of test standards and guidelines for psychometric test reviews without any attempt to address the critical content of many substantive publications by measurement experts such as Joel Michell. For example, he has argued
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The European Federation of Psychologists’ Associations (EFPA) has issued sets of test standards and guidelines for psychometric test reviews without any attempt to address the critical content of many substantive publications by measurement experts such as Joel Michell. For example, he has argued that the psychometric test-theory which underpins classical and modern IRT psychometrics is “pathological”, with the entire profession of psychometricians suffering from a methodological thought disorder. With the advent of new kinds of assessment now being created by the “Next Generation” of psychologists which no longer conform to the item-based, statistical test theory generated last century, a new framework is set out for constructing evidence-bases suitable for these “Next Generation” of assessments, which avoids the illusory beliefs of equal-interval or quantitatively structured psychological attributes. Finally, with no systematic or substantive refutations of the logic, axioms, and evidence set out by Michell and others; it is concluded psychologists and their professional associations remain in denial. As with the eventual demise of a similar attempt to maintain the status quo of professional beliefs within forensic clinical psychology and psychiatry during the last century, those following certain EFPA guidelines might now find themselves required to justify their professional beliefs in legal rather than academic environments. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effectiveness of a Computer-Based Training Program of Attention and Memory in Patients with Acquired Brain Damage
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8010004
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 27 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 30 December 2017
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Abstract
Many training programs have been designed using modern software to restore the impaired cognitive functions in patients with acquired brain damage (ABD). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a computer-based training program of attention and memory in patients
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Many training programs have been designed using modern software to restore the impaired cognitive functions in patients with acquired brain damage (ABD). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a computer-based training program of attention and memory in patients with ABD, using a two-armed parallel group design, where the experimental group (n = 50) received cognitive stimulation using RehaCom software, and the control group (n = 30) received the standard cognitive stimulation (non-computerized) for eight weeks. In order to assess the possible cognitive changes after the treatment, a post-pre experimental design was employed using the following neuropsychological tests: Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) and Trail Making test A and B. The effectiveness of the training procedure was statistically significant (p < 0.05) when it established the comparison between the performance in these scales, before and after the training period, in each patient and between the two groups. The training group had statistically significant (p < 0.001) changes in focused attention (Trail A), two subtests (digit span and logical memory), and the overall score of WMS. Finally, we discuss the advantages of computerized training rehabilitation and further directions of this line of work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of Art in Non-Clinical Models for Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Psychological Predictors of Sexual Intimate Partner Violence against Black and Hispanic Women
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8010003
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 27 December 2017
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Abstract
Background: Although various types of intimate partner violence (IPV) tend to co-occur, risk factors of each type of IPV may differ. At the same time, most of the existing literature on risk factors of IPV among minorities has used a cross-sectional design and
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Background: Although various types of intimate partner violence (IPV) tend to co-occur, risk factors of each type of IPV may differ. At the same time, most of the existing literature on risk factors of IPV among minorities has used a cross-sectional design and has focused on physical rather than sexual IPV. We conducted the current study to compare Black and Hispanic women for psychological predictors of change in sexual IPV over time. Methods: Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), this study followed 561 Black and 475 Hispanic women with their male partners for four years. Independent variables included male partners’ depression, anxiety, problem alcohol use, and male-to-female physical and psychological IPV perpetration. The dependent variable was sexual IPV reported by female partners, measured at baseline, two years, and four years later. Covariates included age, income, marital status and educational level. We used a multi-group latent growth curve model (LGCM) to explain intercept, linear, and quadratic slopes, which represent the baseline, and linear and curvilinear trajectories of male-to-female sexual IPV, where groups were defined based on ethnicity. Results: Psychological IPV was associated with sexual IPV at baseline among both ethnic groups. The male partner’s depression was a risk factor for an increase in sexual IPV over time among Black but not Hispanic women. Anxiety, problem alcohol use and physical IPV did not have an effect on the baseline or change in sexual IPV over time. Psychological IPV was not associated with an increase in sexual IPV over time in either ethnic groups. Conclusions: There is a need for screening of sexual IPV in the presence of psychological IPV among minority women. There is also a need for screening and treatment of male partners’ depression as a strategy to reduce sexual IPV among Black women. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Length of Residence is Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Foreign-English Teachers in Korea
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8010002
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 8 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 26 December 2017
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Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a group of disorders that involve the heart and blood vessels. Acculturation is associated with CVD risk factors among immigrants in Western countries. In this study, the association between acculturation and CVD risk factors was examined among English teachers
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a group of disorders that involve the heart and blood vessels. Acculturation is associated with CVD risk factors among immigrants in Western countries. In this study, the association between acculturation and CVD risk factors was examined among English teachers from Europe and the USA living in Korea. English teachers were defined as those who reported their profession as “English Teacher”. Only English teachers from Europe (UK, and Ireland, n = 81) and North America (Canada and USA, n = 304) were selected. The length of residence and eating Korean ethnic food were used as proxy indicators for acculturation. Gender was associated with hypertension: 17.6% of males self-reported to have the cardiovascular risk factor when compared to females (7.4%). The length of residence in Korea was associated with hypertension (p = 0.045), BMI (p = 0.028), and physical inactivity (p = 0.046). English teachers who had been residing in Korea for more than five years were more likely to report hypertension (OR = 2.16; p = 0.011), smoking (OR = 1.51; p = 0.080), and overweight/obesity (OR = 1.49; p = 0.009) than participants who had been living in Korea for less than five years. This study found evidence of the healthy immigrant effect and less favorable cardiovascular risk profiles among English teachers who have lived in Korea for over five years. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Contributing to Overall Life Satisfaction: Personality Traits Versus Life Satisfaction Variables Revisited—Is Replication Impossible?
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8010001
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 23 December 2017
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Abstract
Virtually everybody would agree that life satisfaction is of immense importance in everyday life. Thus, it is not surprising that a considerable amount of research using many different methodological approaches has investigated what the best predictors of life satisfaction are. In the present
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Virtually everybody would agree that life satisfaction is of immense importance in everyday life. Thus, it is not surprising that a considerable amount of research using many different methodological approaches has investigated what the best predictors of life satisfaction are. In the present study, we have focused on several key potential influences on life satisfaction including bottom-up and top-down models, cross-cultural effects, and demographic variables. In four independent (large scale) surveys with sample sizes ranging from N = 488 to 40,297, we examined the associations between life satisfaction and various related variables. Our findings demonstrate that prediction of overall life satisfaction works best when including information about specific life satisfaction variables. From this perspective, satisfaction with leisure showed the highest impact on overall life satisfaction in our European samples. Personality was also robustly associated with life satisfaction, but only when life satisfaction variables were not included in the regression model. These findings could be replicated in all four independent samples, but it was also demonstrated that the relevance of life satisfaction variables changed under the influence of cross-cultural effects. Full article
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