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Behav. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 8 (August 2020) – 10 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): We present findings from the UK’s first pharmacist-led Home-Office-licensed drug checking service, in a community substance misuse treatment service. Individuals provided informed consent to relinquish their drug sample, which was checked on-site using handheld Raman spectroscopy to determine the likely drug content and adulterants. Informed by the analytical screening and accompanying questionnaire, free and confidential focused harm reduction interventions were tailored to the person’s needs. Relinquished samples included claimed heroin, synthetic cannabinoids, stimulants, benzodiazepines and LSD. Subjects commonly reported concomitant alcohol, traditional illicit drugs and/or prescribed opioids, anxiolytics and antidepressants with sedating profiles. This pilot demonstrated a proof-of-concept, that a drug checking service can be successfully implemented in substance misuse services. View this paper
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Article
The Mediating Effect of Parental Involvement on School Climate and Behavior Problems: School Personnel Perceptions
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10080129 - 09 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2938
Abstract
As a reflection of the culture and norms of the school community, the school climate (SC) is a potential factor connected to students’ major behavior problems (BP). Parental involvement (PI) is considered as an essential factor for SC, contributing to promote good students’ [...] Read more.
As a reflection of the culture and norms of the school community, the school climate (SC) is a potential factor connected to students’ major behavior problems (BP). Parental involvement (PI) is considered as an essential factor for SC, contributing to promote good students’ educational results, as well as better social functioning. The present study aimed to analyze the mediating effect of PI on the relationship between SC and BP, taking into consideration the school personnel perceptions. A total of 329 school personnel (teachers versus no teachers) aged between 29 and 66 (M = 50.78, SD = 7.56), mainly female (79%), were integrated in the sample. Based on the perception of the school personnel, the results indicate moderate level of PI and SC, as well as the existence of different BP in the school context. The mediating effect of PI in the relationship between the SC and BP has been demonstrated. These results suggest that, if the SC and PI are improved, it could be an effective strategy to enhance the social functioning of students in the school context. This study thus contributes to a comprehensive empirical analysis of how PI can improve the relationship between the SC and the BP of Portuguese students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Educational Psychology)
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Review
The Experience of Post-Stroke Pain and The Impact on Quality of Life: An Integrative Review
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10080128 - 07 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2800
Abstract
Background: Many people experience post-stroke pain (PSP). It is a long-term consequence of stroke that commonly goes unrecognised and untreated. As a result, an integrative review is needed to identify the primary factors that affect PSP and determine the impact on quality [...] Read more.
Background: Many people experience post-stroke pain (PSP). It is a long-term consequence of stroke that commonly goes unrecognised and untreated. As a result, an integrative review is needed to identify the primary factors that affect PSP and determine the impact on quality of life (QOL). Methods: An integrative review using a quantitatively led data synthesis, supported by qualitative evidence, was conducted. Results: Fourteen studies were identified and 2415 (968 females, 1447 males) people were included. Five primary themes were identified as effecting the experience of PSP; anxiety, depression, fatigue, cognitive function and physical function. Anxiety, depression and fatigue increase PSP. Pain, depression, fatigue and reduced physical function lower QOL. Conclusions: It is essential that clinicians recognise PSP in order to optimize QOL and function post-stroke. Further research is needed to employ a strategy to identify and objectively quantify PSP and its impact on QOL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Psychology)
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Article
Customer Value Types Predicting Consumer Behavior at Dutch Grocery Retailers
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10080127 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2099
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to profile three grocery retail formats (non-discounter, soft discounter, and hard discounter) in the Netherlands using Holbrook’s value types. These value types are linked to three consumer behavior outcomes, i.e., Satisfaction, Repurchase intention, and Word-of-Mouth. The impact [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to profile three grocery retail formats (non-discounter, soft discounter, and hard discounter) in the Netherlands using Holbrook’s value types. These value types are linked to three consumer behavior outcomes, i.e., Satisfaction, Repurchase intention, and Word-of-Mouth. The impact of the retail formats is evaluated on the importance and performance of the value types, using a questionnaire for each of the retail formats. The relationship between the value types and outcomes is tested with partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Aesthetics, Altruistic value, and Efficiency are positively linked to Satisfaction. In addition, Efficiency is the key driver for Repurchase intention and has a positive impact on Word-of-Mouth. A positive Word-of-Mouth is predicted by Social value and Service excellence. The three examined retail formats show a difference in Holbrook’s value types. Overall, the results of the non- and soft discounters differ from the hard discounters. Remarkably, and contrary to previous studies, the soft discounter’s scores are the highest meaning that consumers are most critical for this retail format. It seems that consumers expect the best of both worlds at soft discounters: low prices, interesting bargains, easy access, but also appealing store design, and excellent service. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumption, Identity, Demographics and Self-Concept)
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Article
Mathematical Profile Test: A Preliminary Evaluation of an Online Assessment for Mathematics Skills of Children in Grades 1–6
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10080126 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2272
Abstract
The domain of numerical cognition still lacks an assessment tool that is theoretically driven and that covers a wide range of key numerical processes with the aim of identifying the learning profiles of children with difficulties in mathematics (MD) or dyscalculia. This paper [...] Read more.
The domain of numerical cognition still lacks an assessment tool that is theoretically driven and that covers a wide range of key numerical processes with the aim of identifying the learning profiles of children with difficulties in mathematics (MD) or dyscalculia. This paper is the first presentation of an online collectively administered tool developed to meet these goals. The Mathematical Profile Test (MathPro Test) includes 18 subtests that assess numerical skills related to the core number domain or to the visual-spatial, memory or reasoning domains. The specific aim of this paper is to present the preliminary evaluation both of the sensitivity and the psychometric characteristics of the individual measures of the MathPro Test, which was administered to 622 primary school children (grades 1–6) in Belgium. Performance on the subtests increased across all grades and varied along the level of difficulty of the items, supporting the sensitivity of the test. The MathPro Test also showed satisfactory internal consistency and significant and stable correlation with a standardized test in mathematics across all grades. In particular, the achievement in mathematics was strongly associated with the performance on the subtests assessing the reasoning and the visuospatial domains throughout all school grades, whereas associations with the core number and memory tasks were found mainly in the younger children. MD children performed significantly lower than their peers; these differences in performance on the MathPro subtests also varied according to the school grades, informing us about the developmental changes of the weaknesses of children with MD. These results suggest that the MathPro Test is a very promising tool for conducting large scale research and for clinicians to sketch out the mathematical profile of children with MD or dyscalculia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Educational Psychology)
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Article
Affective and Sexual Needs of Residents in Psychiatric Facilities: A Qualitative Approach
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10080125 - 03 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1701
Abstract
Background: The affective and sexual needs of psychiatric patients are often under-considered, although they contribute significantly to their general well-being. Such topics are critical for Residential Psychiatric Facilities Users (RPFUs), whose daily life is paced by therapeutic settings. The aim of this paper [...] Read more.
Background: The affective and sexual needs of psychiatric patients are often under-considered, although they contribute significantly to their general well-being. Such topics are critical for Residential Psychiatric Facilities Users (RPFUs), whose daily life is paced by therapeutic settings. The aim of this paper is to better understand how sexuality and affectivity are expressed by the RPFUs at the Mental Health Department of Modena, within psychiatric residential settings. Methods: Adult RPFUs took part into two audio recorded focus groups. Digital transcripts were analyzed using MAXQDA software in order to perform qualitative narrative analysis, so as to develop a hierarchical code system a posteriori (derived from the data). Results: Eleven participants (eight RPFUs and three investigators) attended the first focus group, and eight participants (5 RPFUs and 3 investigators) attended the second focus group. 175 interventions were analyzed and coded under seven thematic areas: (a) contraception and sexually transmitted disease prevention (N = 17); (b) affective needs (N = 11); (c) personal experiences (N = 61); (d) regulation of sexual relations (N = 18); (e) Mental Health Professionals’ (MHPs) openness towards the topic (N = 17); (f) MHPs’ responses to RPFUs’ sexual behaviors (N = 33); and (g) RPFUs proposals (N = 18). The highlighted topics suggest that affective and sexual relations commonly occur within residential psychiatric facilities, even if mental health services often fail to recognize and address RPFUs’ affective and sexual needs as well as to provide effective solutions to manage them. Conclusions: RPFUs expressed a request for support to fulfill their affective and sexual needs and dedicated spaces for sexual activities to relieve their discomfort, while MHPs highlighted a need for awareness, training, and shared problem-solving strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychiatric, Emotional and Behavioral Disorders)
Article
The Evaluation of a Mind-Body Intervention (MBT-T) for Stress Reduction in Academic Settings: A Pilot Study
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10080124 - 30 Jul 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2448
Abstract
This study is aimed at evaluating the outcomes of mind-body transformation therapy (MBT-T), previously known as the creative psychosocial genomic healing experience© (CPGHE). The intervention was aimed at reducing the perceived level of stress in two non-clinical groups of students with different educational [...] Read more.
This study is aimed at evaluating the outcomes of mind-body transformation therapy (MBT-T), previously known as the creative psychosocial genomic healing experience© (CPGHE). The intervention was aimed at reducing the perceived level of stress in two non-clinical groups of students with different educational levels and different expertise in the domain of well-being. Whereas participants from the first group were first-year university students, participants from the second group were students attending a post-graduate program in psychotherapy. All participants (n = 159) were exposed to a single session of MBT-T, each group in a separate session. The results of two paired-samples t-tests, conducted separately on the two samples, showed that there was a statistically significant reduction in the participants’ perceived level of stress between pre- and post-intervention states in both samples (t88 = 5.39, p < 0.001; t53 = 4.56, p < 0.001 respectively). The results, therefore, showed that a single session of MBT-T was beneficial in reducing the perceived level of stress in both first-year university students and students attending a post-graduate program in psychotherapy, regardless of educational level and expertise in the domain of well-being. Full article
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Article
Better to Be Alone than in Bad Company: Cognate Synonyms Impair Word Learning
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10080123 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1887
Abstract
The effects of cognate synonymy in L2 word learning are explored. Participants learned the names of well-known concrete concepts in a new fictional language following a picture-word association paradigm. Half of the concepts (set A) had two possible translations in the new language [...] Read more.
The effects of cognate synonymy in L2 word learning are explored. Participants learned the names of well-known concrete concepts in a new fictional language following a picture-word association paradigm. Half of the concepts (set A) had two possible translations in the new language (i.e., both words were synonyms): one was a cognate in participants’ L1 and the other one was not. The other half of the concepts (set B) had only one possible translation in the new language, a non-cognate word. After learning the new words, participants’ memory was tested in a picture-word matching task and a translation recognition task. In line with previous findings, our results clearly indicate that cognates are much easier to learn, as we found that the cognate translation was remembered much better than both its non-cognate synonym and the non-cognate from set B. Our results also seem to suggest that non-cognates without cognate synonyms (set B) are better learned than non-cognates with cognate synonyms (set A). This suggests that, at early stages of L2 acquisition, learning a cognate would produce a poorer acquisition of its non-cognate synonym, as compared to a solely learned non-cognate. These results are discussed in the light of different theories and models of bilingual mental lexicon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cognition)
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Article
Details of the Contents of Paranoid Thoughts in Help-Seeking Adolescents with Psychotic-Like Experiences and Continuity with Bullying and Victimization: A Pilot Study
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10080122 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1751
Abstract
Background: Psychosis recognizes an interaction between biological and social environmental factors. Adversities are now recognized to be consistently associated with psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). The purpose of this study was to describe the contents of paranoid symptoms and to focus on their relationship [...] Read more.
Background: Psychosis recognizes an interaction between biological and social environmental factors. Adversities are now recognized to be consistently associated with psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). The purpose of this study was to describe the contents of paranoid symptoms and to focus on their relationship with bullying and victimization in help-seeking adolescents. Methods: Help-seeking adolescents who screened positive for PLEs participated in the study. They performed a battery self-report questionnaire for data collection (paranoia: the Specific Psychotic Experiences Questionnaire (SPEQ); the content of paranoid thoughts: the Details of Threat (DoT); bullying victimization: the Multidimensional Peer Victimization Scale (MPVS); depression: the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI); and anxiety: the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale (MASC)). Results: The participants were 50 adolescents (52% female; mean age: 170 months). The contents of their paranoid symptoms were related to victimization and, in particular, the certainty of threats was correlated with physical (0.394, p < 0.01) and verbal bullying (0.394, p < 0.01), respectively. The powerfulness of the threats correlated with verbal victimization (0.295, p < 0.05). The imminence of the threats was linked to verbal (0.399, p < 0.01) victimization. Hours under threat correlated with verbal (0.415, p < 0.01) victimization. The sureness of the threat had a moderate correlation with physical (0.359, p < 0.05) and verbal (0.443, p < 0.01) victimization, respectively. The awfulness of the threat was linked to social manipulation (0.325, p < 0.05). Conclusions: We described the content of the persecutory symptoms. The powerfulness, imminence, sureness, and awfulness of threats correlated with the level of physical, verbal and social manipulation victimization. Teachers and family must actively monitor early signs of bullying victimization, and school psychologists should promote preventive and therapeutic intervention. From a social psychiatry perspective, the prevention of bullying victimization is necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Developmental Psychology)
Article
Piloting the UK’s First Home-Office-Licensed Pharmacist-Led Drug Checking Service at a Community Substance Misuse Service
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10080121 - 25 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3281
Abstract
(1) Introduction: Drug-related deaths in the UK are at concerning high levels. The unknown content and purity of illicit substances can cause unpredictable adverse effects and thus a public health risk with no sign of abating. On-site drug checking is a public health [...] Read more.
(1) Introduction: Drug-related deaths in the UK are at concerning high levels. The unknown content and purity of illicit substances can cause unpredictable adverse effects and thus a public health risk with no sign of abating. On-site drug checking is a public health strategy that has previously been implemented, predominantly in festival settings, but without Home Office licensing. (2) Aims: The aim of this study was to pilot the UK’s first pharmacist-led, Home Office-licensed community drug checking service. (3) Methods: A bespoke protocol incorporating legally, professionally and ethically binding documents was implemented. This free, confidential service ran between February and March 2019, was available to anyone over 18 who were purposefully recruited, gave informed consent and agreed to relinquish their drug sample. Samples were checked on-site within an established Substance Misuse Service (SMS) using a handheld Raman spectrometer to determine likely drug content and adulterants. In parallel, participants completed a questionnaire about their substance use and the drug sample(s) being tested. A pharmacist-led multidisciplinary approach was adopted to discuss the analytical findings. Informed by the results of the analysis and the questionnaire, people who used the service received tailored harm reduction advice. (4) Results and Discussion: The pilot operated for a total of four days over four weeks. Eleven people visited and relinquished a total of thirteen samples. Half of the participants had previously overdosed and were known to the SMS. Seventy per cent were male, all were White British individuals, 30% were employed and two people disclosed visiting from another nearby town. Samples included what was thought to be heroin, synthetic cannabinoids, stimulants, benzodiazepines and LSD and none required activation of the “alerts cascade” process. Most participants drank alcohol regularly and the concomitant use of traditional illicit drugs and prescribed medication (including opioids, anxiolytics and antidepressants) with sedating profiles was common. Given some of the ethical decisions and interpretation of the results, specialist pharmacist involvement was deemed essential. (5) Conclusions: This pilot demonstrated the proof-of-concept that a pharmacist-led Home Office-licensed drug checking service can be successfully implemented in community SMSs. Full article
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Article
Views of People with Diabetes Regarding Their Experiences of the Facilitators and Barriers in Type 1 Diabetes Inpatient Care: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10080120 - 22 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1630
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to comprehend how people with diabetes view their experiences of the possible barriers and facilitators in inpatient care for type 1 diabetes from non-specialized nurses. Design: An interpretative phenomenology analysis (IPA) was conducted. Methods: The sample [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to comprehend how people with diabetes view their experiences of the possible barriers and facilitators in inpatient care for type 1 diabetes from non-specialized nurses. Design: An interpretative phenomenology analysis (IPA) was conducted. Methods: The sample consisted of people with type 1 diabetes 1 (n = 24) who use the services of the state hospitals in Cyprus. The data were collected in two phases: firstly, focus groups with people with diabetes (n = 2) were conducted and analysed, and then individual semi-structured interviews with people with diabetes (n = 12) were conducted. Results: It is evident from the findings that people with diabetes experienced several barriers in diabetes inpatient care, which is concerning since this can have adverse effects on patients’ outcomes. No facilitators were reported. Conclusion: Significant results were found in relation to the barriers to diabetes inpatient care. Crucially, the findings demonstrate that all these factors can negatively affect the quality of care of patients with diabetes, and most of these factors are related not only to diabetes care but also generally to all patients who receive inpatient care. Interestingly, no participant reported any facilitators to their care, which further affected the negative perceptions of the care received. Full article
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