# Mathematical Profile Test: A Preliminary Evaluation of an Online Assessment for Mathematics Skills of Children in Grades 1–6

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

#### 1.1. The Theoretical Framework of the MathPro Test

#### 1.2. Core Number Domain

#### 1.3. Memory Domain

#### 1.4. Visual-Spatial Domain

#### 1.5. Reasoning Domain

#### 1.6. Selection of the MathPro Test Tasks

#### 1.7. The Aim of This Study

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. MathPro Subtests

#### 2.2. MathPro Subtests

#### 2.2.1. Dots Magnitude Comparison

#### 2.2.2. Single and Multidigit Number Magnitude Comparison

#### 2.2.3. Screen Keyboard Use

#### 2.2.4. Numbers Dictation

#### 2.2.5. Next Number

#### 2.2.6. Previous Number

#### 2.2.7. Subitizing

#### 2.2.8. Enumeration

#### 2.2.9. Addition Facts Retrieval

#### 2.2.10. Multiplication Facts Retrieval

#### 2.2.11. Mental Calculations

#### 2.2.12. Number Lines 0–100

#### 2.2.13. Number Lines 0–1000

#### 2.2.14. Squares

#### 2.2.15. Building Blocks

#### 2.2.16. Word Problems

#### 2.2.17. Calculation Principles

#### 2.2.18. Numerical Patterns

#### 2.3. MathPro Test Advantages

#### 2.4. Standardized Test in Mathematics

#### 2.5. Statistical Analysis

## 3. Results

#### 3.1. Descriptive Analyses

#### 3.2. Internal Consistency

#### 3.3. Grade and Difficulty Effects

#### 3.4. Correlations with the Standardized Math Test

#### 3.5. Comparison of MD Versus Typically Achieving Students

^{2}= 0.40). Indeed, MD students performed significantly less accurately than TAs in numbers dictation, subitizing, enumeration, addition facts retrieval, number lines 0–100, building blocks and numerical patterns. They were also slower in the single-digit numbers comparison, i.e., the sole task where their speed was measured (Table 8).

^{2}= 0.30). MD students performed significantly lower than TAs in single digit numbers comparison, multidigit numbers comparison, numbers dictation, previous numbers, subitizing, mental calculations, number lines 0–100, word problems and numerical patterns (Table 8). The MANCOVA run for the reaction time controlling for the general speed showed a significant global group effect (F(3, 84) = 4.532, p = 0.005 and η

^{2}= 0.14). The MD students were significantly slower than TAs in addition facts retrieval.

^{2}= 0.56). MD students significantly underperformed on multidigit numbers comparison, numbers dictation, mental calculations, number lines 0–100 and 0–1000, squares, word problems and calculation principles (Table 8). The MANCOVA run on speed measures controlling for the general motor speed failed to show a significant global effect of the group (F(8, 82) = 1.896 and p = 0.064) as MD students were significantly slower than TAs in multidigit numbers comparison only (Table 8).

^{2}= 0.34) and the grade (F (36, 494) = 3.890, p < 0.001 and η

^{2}= 0.22) but not of the group × grade interaction (F (36, 494) = 1.378 and p = 0.079). MD students performed significantly more poorly than TAs in dots comparison, multidigit numbers comparison, numbers dictation, multiplication facts retrieval, mental calculations, number lines 0–100 and 0–1000, squares, building blocks, word problems, calculation principles and numerical patterns (Table 9). The MANCOVA run on speed measures controlling for the general motor speed showed a significant global effect of the group (F (8, 263) = 3.451, p = 0.001 and η

^{2}= 0.10), the Grade (F (16, 528) = 4.596, p < 0.001 and η

^{2}= 0.12) but not of the group × grade interaction (F (16, 528) = 0.987 and p = 0.469). Indeed, MD students were significantly slower than TA students in multidigit numbers comparison, enumeration, addition and multiplication facts (Table 9).

## 4. Discussion

#### 4.1. The Core Number Domain Measures

#### 4.2. The Memory Domain Measures

#### 4.3. The Reasoning Domain Measures

#### 4.4. The Visual-Spatial Domain Measures

#### 4.5. The Difficulties in Children with MD

#### 4.6. Limitations and Future Perspectives

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## Appendix A

#### Appendix A.1. Difficulty Effects for Grades 1, 2, 3

#### Appendix A.1.1. Multidigit Numbers Comparison

^{2}= 0.07) and their RTs were shorter for two-digit numbers (3819 ± 916) than for three-digit numbers ((4489 ± 1827), F (1, 97) = 17.369, p < 0.001 and η

^{2}= 0.16). Grade 3 students’ AC were similarly high for the two- and three-digit numbers (0.90 ± 0.18 and 0.91 ± 0.18, respectively) and non-significantly (F (2,202) = 2.155 and p = 0.119) lower for the four-digit numbers (0.87 ± 0.22). RTs increased with the size of the number (F (2,202) = 63.878, p < 0.001 and η

^{2}= 0.39: two-, three- and four-digit, 3275 ± 520, 3455 ± 657 and 4506 ± 1522, respectively).

#### Appendix A.1.2. Numbers Dictation

#### Appendix A.1.3. Next Numbers

^{2}= 0.36) better for single-digit numbers (0.64 ± 0.36) than two-digit numbers (0.36 ± 0.40).

#### Appendix A.1.4. Previous Numbers

^{2}= 0.07) for single-digit numbers (0.65 ± 0.38) than for two-digit numbers (0.42 ± 0.41).

#### Appendix A.1.5. Enumeration

^{2}= 0.10) for the smaller group of dots (0.75 ± 0.28) than for the larger (0.67 ± 0.34).

#### Appendix A.1.6. Addition Facts Retrieval

^{2}= 0.04) for the smaller sums (0.84 ± 0.25) than for the larger (0.81 ± 0.28).

#### Appendix A.1.7. Mental Calculations

^{2}= 0.72) with the increased difficulty (easy (0.74 ± 0.31), medium (0.59 ± 0.33) and difficult (0.25 ± 0.30)).

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**Figure 7.**Squares subtest screenshots. (

**a**) contain only whole squares; (

**b**) contain a combination of whole squares and half-square triangles; (

**c**) quarter-square triangles are also included.

**Figure 11.**Difficulty level × grade interaction on (

**a**) single-digits number comparison, (

**b**) number dictation, (

**c**) subitizing, (

**d**) building blocks, (

**e**) numerical patterns and (

**f**) number lines.

Grade | Sex | Sum | |
---|---|---|---|

Boys | Girls | ||

1 | 50 | 56 | 106 |

2 | 55 | 43 | 98 |

3 | 52 | 50 | 102 |

4 | 55 | 56 | 111 |

5 | 52 | 40 | 92 |

6 | 56 | 57 | 113 |

Sum | 320 | 302 | 622 |

Domain | |||
---|---|---|---|

Core Number | Memory | Reasoning | Visual-Spatial |

1. Dots comparison 2. Single-digit numbers comparison 8. Subitizing | 5. Numbers dictation 6. Νext number 7. Previous number 9. Enumeration 10. Addition facts retrieval 11. Multiplication facts retrieval | 3. Multidigit numbers comparison 12. Mental calculations 17. Word problems 18. Calculation principles 19. Numerical patterns | 13. Number lines 0–100 14. Number lines 0–1000 15. Squares 16. Building blocks |

Subtests | Grade 1 | Grade 2 | Grade 3 | Grades 4–6 |
---|---|---|---|---|

1. Dots comparison | 30 | 30 | 30 | 30 |

2. Single-digit numbers comparison | 24 | 24 | 24 | 24 |

3. Multidigit numbers comparison | 0 | 6 | 9 | 12 |

4. Screen keyboard use | 10 | 10 | 10 | 10 |

5. Numbers dictation * | 30 | 30 | 30 | 30 |

6. Next number * | 12 | 18 | 18 | 18 |

7. Previous number * | 12 | 18 | 18 | 18 |

8. Subitizing | 20 | 20 | 20 | 20 |

9. Enumeration | 14 | 14 | 14 | 14 |

10. Addition facts retrieval | 12 | 12 | 12 | 12 |

11. Multiplication facts retrieval | 0 | 0 | 14 | 14 |

12. Mental calculations | 0 | 12 | 24 | 24 |

13. Number lines 0–100 | 22 | 22 | 22 | 22 |

14. Number lines 0–1000 | 0 | 0 | 22 | 22 |

15. Squares | 0 | 0 | 10 | 10 |

16. Building blocks | 8 | 8 | 8 | 8 |

17. Word problems * | 0 | 10 | 18 | 18 |

18. Calculation principles * | 0 | 0 | 15 | 15 |

19. Numerical patterns * | 18 | 18 | 18 | 18 |

Individual Measures | Grade 1 | Grade 2 | Grade 3 | Grade 4 | Grade 5 | Grade 6 | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

M | SD | M | SD | M | SD | M | SD | M | SD | M | SD | |

Dots comparison (AC) | 0.55 | 0.13 | 0.60 | 0.10 | 0.62 | 0.10 | 0.63 | 0.09 | 0.69 | 0.08 | 0.67 | 0.09 |

Single-digit numbers comparison (AC) | 0.95 | 0.06 | 0.97 | 0.39 | 0.98 | 0.05 | 0.99 | 0.03 | 0.98 | 0.05 | 0.98 | 0.04 |

Single-digit numbers comparison (RT) | 3113 | 437 | 2799 | 385 | 2515 | 354 | 2337 | 205 | 2211 | 314 | 2153 | 187 |

Multidigit numbers comparison (AC) | - | - | 0.85 | 0.18 | 0.88 | 0.14 | 0.80 | 0.13 | 0.87 | 0.12 | 0.90 | 0.12 |

Multidigit numbers comparison (RT) | - | - | 4027 | 944 | 3512 | 503 | 3075 | 360 | 2903 | 444 | 2749 | 285 |

Screen keyboard use (AC) | 0.96 | 0.01 | 0.98 | 0.01 | 0.98 | 0.01 | 0.99 | 0.01 | 0.99 | 0.01 | 0.99 | 0.01 |

Screen keyboard use (RT) | 4234 | 792 | 3621 | 523 | 3204 | 399 | 2850 | 275 | 2682 | 350 | 2484 | 259 |

Numbers dictation (AC) | 0.36 | 0.14 | 0.63 | 0.20 | 0.79 | 0.17 | 0.90 | 0.16 | 0.93 | 0.12 | 0.95 | 0.12 |

Numbers dictation (RT) | 3670 | 1339 | 3890 | 862 | 2487 | 491 | 2679 | 600 | 2539 | 438 | 2243 | 404 |

Next number (AC) | 0.50 | 0.35 | 0.64 | 0.28 | 0.83 | 0.25 | 0.91 | 0.09 | 0.92 | 0.02 | 0.95 | 0.12 |

Next number (RT) | 5682 | 1779 | 5513 | 1384 | 3605 | 889 | 3569 | 596 | 3169 | 519 | 2772 | 370 |

Previous number (AC) | 0.53 | 0.37 | 0.73 | 0.24 | 0.87 | 0.21 | 0.94 | 0.12 | 0.95 | 0.14 | 0.97 | 0.07 |

Previous number (RT) | 5942 | 2079 | 5189 | 1115 | 3259 | 610 | 3244 | 510 | 2957 | 439 | 2618 | 347 |

Subitizing (AC) | 0.64 | 0.20 | 0.74 | 0.16 | 0.79 | 0.14 | 0.85 | 0.11 | 0.87 | 0.11 | 0.87 | 0.12 |

Enumeration (AC) | 0.71 | 0.29 | 0.81 | 0.23 | 0.85 | 0.18 | 0.92 | 0.13 | 0.92 | 0.13 | 0.89 | 0.15 |

Enumeration (RT) | 11830 | 6553 | 8387 | 1850 | 7529 | 1550 | 6623 | 1263 | 6115 | 1250 | 5431 | 1024 |

Addition facts retrieval (AC) | 0.82 | 0.25 | 0.91 | 0.19 | 0.94 | 0.14 | 0.98 | 0.04 | 0.98 | 0.04 | 0.96 | 0.13 |

Addition facts retrieval (RT) | 8178 | 4130 | 5402 | 1847 | 4343 | 2617 | 3343 | 778 | 3030 | 606 | 2568 | 428 |

Multiplication facts retrieval (AC) | - | - | - | - | 0.80 | 0.24 | 0.92 | 0.14 | 0.95 | 0.058 | 0.92 | 0.16 |

Multiplication facts retrieval (RT) | - | - | - | - | 8550 | 3598 | 6186 | 2214 | 4992 | 1539 | 4333 | 2190 |

Mental calculations (AC) | - | - | 0.53 | 0.27 | 0.63 | 0.23 | 0.80 | 0.19 | 0.85 | 0.14 | 0.84 | 0.15 |

Number lines 0–100 (PAE) | 17.24 | 8.12 | 8.42 | 4.29 | 6.48 | 2.81 | 5.14 | 1.62 | 4.73 | 1.49 | 4.59 | 1.68 |

Number lines 0–1000 (PAE) | - | - | - | - | 11.02 | 6.49 | 7.75 | 4.42 | 5.97 | 3.08 | 5.37 | 2.99 |

Squares (AC) | - | - | - | - | 0.59 | 0.23 | 0.68 | 0.17 | 0.73 | 0.16 | 0.77 | 0.16 |

Building blocks (AC) | 0.58 | 0.27 | 0.78 | 0.26 | 0.81 | 0.23 | 0.86 | 0.19 | 0.91 | 0.14 | 0.93 | 0.12 |

Word problems (AC) | - | - | 0.44 | 0.30 | 0.36 | 0.24 | 0.54 | 0.29 | 0.68 | 0.31 | 0.81 | 0.18 |

Calculation principles (AC) | - | - | - | - | 0.22 | 0.22 | 0.33 | 0.23 | 0.36 | 0.18 | 0.51 | 0.28 |

Numerical patterns (AC) | 0.21 | 0.16 | 0.38 | 0.18 | 0.45 | 0.17 | 0.52 | 0.20 | 0.58 | 0.21 | 0.60 | 0.20 |

Measure | Cronbach’s α | Internal Consistency Level |
---|---|---|

Numbers dictation (AC) | 0.95 | Good or excellent |

Screen keyboard use (RT) | 0.94 | |

Calculation principles (AC) | 0.92 | |

Number lines 0–100 (PAE) | 0.92 | |

Next number (AC) | 0.87–0.93 | |

Word problems (AC) | 0.86–0.93 | |

Previous number (AC) | 0.84–0.93 | |

Single-digit numbers comparison (RT) | 0.82–0.93 | |

Multidigit numbers comparison (RT) | 0.81–0.90 | |

Numerical patterns (AC) | 0.89 | |

Numbers dictation (RT) | 0.56–0.89 | |

Enumeration (RT) | 0.88 | |

Addition facts retrieval (AC) | 0.88 | |

Number lines 0–1000 (PAE) | 0.88 | |

Multiplication facts retrieval (AC) | 0.86 | |

Mental calculations (AC) | 0.85–0.87 | |

Multiplication facts retrieval (RT) | 0.85 | |

Enumeration (AC) | 0.85 | |

Addition facts retrieval (RT) | 0.84 | |

Building blocks (AC) | 0.79 | Acceptable |

Subitizing (AC) | 0.78 | |

Next number (RT) | 0.66–0.78 | |

Previous number (RT) | 0.57–0.74 | |

Squares (AC) | 0.66 | Poor |

Screen calculator use (AC) | 0.62 | |

Single-digit numbers comparison (AC) | 0.57 | |

Multidigit numbers comparison (AC) | 0.44–0.55 | |

Dots comparison (AC) | 0.42 | Unacceptable |

Grade | η^{2} | Difficulty | η^{2} | Grade × Difficulty | η^{2} | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Dots comparison (AC) | F_{5,541} = 15.93 *** | 0.13 | ^{1} F_{3.678,1989} = 102.10 *** | 0.09 | p = 0.062 | |

Single-digit numbers comparison (AC) | F_{5,615} = 10.72 *** | 0.08 | F_{1,615} = 67.37 *** | 0.18 | p = 0.298 | |

Single-digit numbers comparison (RT) | F_{5,615} = 136.60 *** | 0.53 | F_{1,615} = 252.30 *** | 0.29 | F_{5,615} = 7.11 *** | 0.06 |

Multidigit numbers comparison ^{4} (AC) | F_{2,312} = 17.30 *** | 0.10 | ^{2} F_{31.664,519} = 206.34 *** | 0.40 | ^{2} F_{3.328,519} = 23.45 *** | 0.13 |

Multidigit numbers comparison ^{4} (RT) | F_{2,311} = 21.72 *** | 0.12 | ^{1} F_{1.775,552} = 63.06 *** | 0.17 | p = 0.407 | |

Numbers dictation (AC) | F_{5,614} = 242.84 *** | 0.66 | ^{1} F_{3.234,1986} = 654.23 *** | 0.52 | ^{1} F_{16.17,1986} = 107.85 *** | 0.47 |

Numbers dictation ^{4} (RT) | F_{2,300} = 27.54 *** | 0.16 | ^{1} F_{2.652,796} = 4.74 ** | 0.02 | ^{1} F_{5.304,796} = 6.03 *** | 0.04 |

Next number ^{3} (AC) | F_{3,413} = 8.72 *** | 0.06 | ^{1} F_{1.781,734} = 37.84 ** | 0.08 | ^{1} F_{5.343,734} = 5.08 ** | 0.04 |

Next number ^{4} (RT) | F_{2,304} = 20.01 *** | 0.17 | p = 0.972 | F_{2,304} = 5.49 ** | 0.04 | |

Previous number ^{3} (AC) | F_{3,413} = 9.72 *** | 0.07 | ^{1} F_{1.700,702} = 34.55 ** | 0.08 | ^{1} F_{5.101,702} = 7.06 * | 0.05 |

Previous number ^{4} (RT) | F_{2,306} = 18.64 *** | 0.11 | p = 0.516 | F_{2,306} = 9.93 ** | 0.06 | |

Subitizing (AC) | F_{5,614} = 41.622 *** | 0.25 | ^{2} F_{2.802,1721} = 458.88 *** | 0.43 | ^{2} F_{14.012,1721} = 4.984 *** | 0.04 |

Enumeration (AC) | F_{5,616} = 17.67 *** | 0.13 | F_{1,616} = 74.64 *** | 0.11 | F_{5,616} = 2.60 * | 0.02 |

Enumeration ^{5} (RT) | F_{4,500} = 8.74 *** | 0.07 | p = 0.216 | p = 0.584 | ||

Addition facts retrieval (AC) | F_{5,615} = 15.36 *** | 0.11 | p = 0.219 | p = 0.099 | ||

Addition facts retrieval ^{5} (RT) | F_{4,510} = 5.32 *** | 0.04 | p = 0.991 | p = 0.773 | ||

Multiplication facts retrieval ^{3} (AC) | F_{3,412} = 15.95 *** | 0.10 | F_{1,412} = 13.02 *** | 0.03 | p = 0.783 | |

Multiplication facts retrieval ^{4} (RT) | F_{2,412} = 19.49 *** | 0.13 | p = 0.799 | p = 0.087 | ||

Mental calculations (AC) | F_{3,413} = 31.64 *** | 0.19 | ^{1} F_{1.745,721} = 219.09 *** | 0.35 | ^{1} F_{5.236,721} = 8.34 *** | 0.06 |

Number line tasks ^{6} (PAE) | F_{5,611} = 147.55 *** | 0.55 | ||||

Squares (AC) | F_{3,413} = 33.04 *** | 0.20 | ||||

Building blocks (AC) | F_{3,412} = 21.75 *** | 0.14 | F_{1,412} = 1216.52 *** | 0.75 | F_{3,412} = 9.84 *** | 0.07 |

Word problems ^{3} (AC) | F_{5,610} = 37.71 *** | 0.24 | F_{1,610} = 230.76 *** | 0.27 | F_{5,610} = 6.86 *** | 0.05 |

Calculation principles (AC) | F_{3,403} = 61.69 *** | 0.32 | F_{2,806} = 335.39 *** | 0.45 | F_{6,806} = 9.07 *** | 0.06 |

Numerical patterns (AC) | F_{3,403} = 25.23 *** | 0.16 | ^{1} F_{1.791,722} = 511.78 *** | 0.60 | ^{1} F_{5.374,722} = 15.36 *** | 0.10 |

^{1}Huynh–Feldt correction;

^{2}Greenhouse–Geisser correction;

^{3}grades 3–6;

^{4}grades 4–6;

^{5}grades 2–6;

^{6}includes both number line 0–100 and 0–1000 tasks.

**Table 7.**Person correlation coefficients between the MathPro index score and the standardized math test.

Grade | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Dots comparison (AC) | 0.124 | 0.278 ** | 0.299 ** | 0.201 * | 0.009 | 0.052 |

Single-digit numbers comparison (AC) | 0.087 | 0.097 | 0.100 | 0.010 | 0.107 | 0.187 |

Single-digit numbers comparison (RT) | 0.257 ** | 0.022 | 0.020 | 0.051 | 0.009 | 0.093 |

Multidigit numbers comparison (AC) | - | 0.385 ** | 0.368 ** | 0.538 ** | 0.289 ** | 0.192 * |

Multidigit numbers comparison (RT) | - | 0.181 | 0.252 * | 0.158 | 0.166 | 0.075 |

Numbers dictation (AC) | 0.283 ** | 0.439 ** | 0.403 ** | 0.206* | 0.307 ** | 0.148 |

Numbers dictation (RT) | - | - | 0.035 | 0.169 | 0.023 | 0.036 |

Next number (AC) | 0.256 ** | 0.305 ** | 0.094 | 0.106 | 0.187 | 0.042 |

Next number (RT) | - | - | 0.057 | 0.137 | 0.182 | 0.024 |

Previous number (AC) | 0.303 ** | 0.478 ** | 0.109 | 0.167 | 0.141 | 0.086 |

Previous number (RT) | 0.100 | 0.028 | 0.072 | 0.042 | ||

Subitizing (AC) | 0.288 ** | 0.263 ** | 0.152 | 0.013 | 0.184 | 0.095 |

Enumeration (AC) | 0.382 ** | 0.249 * | 0.014 | 0.152 | 0.126 | 0.154 |

Enumeration (RT) | - | - | 0.235 * | 0.017 | 0.179 | 0.184 |

Addition facts retrieval (AC) | 0.434 ** | 0.260 ** | 0.162 | 0.313 ** | 0.006 | 0.034 |

Addition facts retrieval (RT) | - | 0.315 ** | 0.180 | 0.287 ** | 0.373 ** | 0.288 ** |

Multiplication facts retrieval (AC) | - | - | 0.278 ** | 0.336 ** | 0.008 | 0.062 |

Multiplication facts retrieval (RT) | - | - | - | 0.161 | 0.433 ** | 0.192 * |

Mental calculations (AC) | 0.573 ** | 0.439 ** | 0.495 ** | 0.460 ** | 0.325 ** | |

Number lines 0–100 (PAE) | 0.374 ** | 0.476 ** | 0.430 ** | 0.292 ** | 0.434 ** | 0.274 ** |

Number lines 0–1000 (PAE) | - | - | 0.569 ** | 0.488 ** | 0.414 ** | 0.394 ** |

Squares (AC) | - | - | 0.365 ** | 0.433 ** | 0.277 ** | 0.319 ** |

Building blocks (AC) | 0.446 ** | 0.185 | 0.219* | 0.327 ** | 0.004 | 0.196 ** |

Word problems (AC) | - | 0.518 ** | 0.391 ** | 0.613 ** | 0.335 ** | 0.495 ** |

Calculation principles (AC) | - | - | 0.364 ** | 0.425 ** | 0.411 ** | 0.189 |

Numerical patterns (AC) | 0.521 ** | 0.477 ** | 0.298 ** | 0.509 ** | 0.462 ** | 0.475 ** |

MathPro index score | 0.595 ** | 0.604 ** | 0.568 ** | 0.627 ** | 0.637 ** | 0.472 ** |

Individual Measures | Grade 1 | Grade 2 | Grade 3 | |||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

TA | MD | F_{1,103} | Sig | TA | MD | F_{1,91} | Sig | TA | MD | F_{1,93} | Sig | |

n = 20 | n = 83 | n = 75 | n = 16 | n = 73 | n = 20 | |||||||

M (SD) | M (SD) | M (SD) | M (SD) | M (SD) | M (SD) | |||||||

Dots comparison (AC) | 0.55 (0.13) | 0.54 (0.11) | 0.047 | 0.829 | 0.60 (0.01) | 0.57 (0.01) | 1.30 | 0.256 | 0.63 (0.01) | 0.60 (0.01) | 1.152 | 0.286 |

Single-digit numbers comparison (AC) | 0.95 (0.07) | 0.94 (0.05) | 0.077 | 0.782 | 0.98 (0.03) | 0.95 (0.06) | 9.19 | 0.003 | 0.98 (0.04) | 0.98 (0.03) | 0.305 | 0.582 |

Single-digit numbers comparison (RT) | 3324 (390) | 3050 (421) | 7.286 | 0.008 | 2788 (493) | 2807 (376) | 0.385 | 0.537 | 2490 (367) | 2583 (380) | 0.132 | 0.717 |

Multidigit numbers comparison (AC) | - | - | - | - | 0.88 (0.17) | 0.71 (0.21) | 11.43 | 0.001 | 0.92 (0.12) | 0.78 (0.15) | 17.318 | <0.001 |

Multidigit numbers comparison (RT) | - | - | - | - | 4229 (1052) | 3991 (920) | 1.044 | 0.310 | 3421 (464) | 3832 (596) | 10.036 | 0.002 |

Numbers dictation (AC) | 0.38 (0.13) | 0.31 (0.15) | 4.34 | 0.040 | 0.66 (0.21) | 0.53 (0.18) | 5.47 | 0.022 | 0.83 (0.14) | 0.69 (0.19) | 12.198 | 0.001 |

Numbers dictation (RT) | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | 3242 (610) | 3407 (746) | 0.175 | 0.676 |

Next number (AC) | 0.53 (0.34) | 0.39 (0.34) | 2.76 | 0.100 | 0.65 (0.29) | 0.63 (0.22) | 0.058 | 0.810 | 0.83 (0.03) | 0.82 (0.03) | 0.029 | 0.866 |

Next number (RT) | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | 3572 (800) | 3838 (1268) | 0.526 | 0.470 |

Previous number (AC) | 0.56 (0.35) | 0.44 (0.40) | 1.84 | 0.179 | 0.76 (0.23) | 0.60 (0.27) | 6.13 | 0.015 | 0.87 (0.20) | 0.82 (0.28) | 0.775 | 0.381 |

Previous number (RT) | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | 3239 (644) | 3361 (581) | 0.143 | 0.706 |

Subitizing | 0.66 (0.20) | 0.54 (0.18) | 6.32 | 0.014 | 0.75 (0.13) | 0.66 (0.24) | 5.02 | 0.028 | 0.79 (0.12) | 0.78 (0.12) | 0.236 | 0.628 |

Enumeration (AC) | 0.76 (0.24) | 0.52 (0.32) | 14.34 | <0.001 | 0.82 (0.22) | 0.75 (0.29) | 1.11 | 0.295 | 0.84 (0.18) | 0.85 (0.21) | 0.016 | 0.901 |

Enumeration (RT) | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | 7431 (1547) | 7874 (1847) | 0.607 | 0.438 |

Addition facts retrieval (AC) | 0.88 (0.18) | 0.66 (0.34) | 15.31 | <0.001 | 0.92 (0.19) | 0.85 (0.25) | 1.55 | 0.216 | 0.94 (0.13) | 0.95 (0.08) | 0.075 | 0.784 |

Addition facts retrieval (RT) | - | - | - | - | 5177 (1667) | 6816 (2390) | 12.113 | 0.001 | 4096 (1428) | 5444 (5187) | 3.347 | 0.071 |

Multiplication facts retrieval (AC) | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | 0.82 (0.22) | 0.75 (0.25) | 1.320 | 0.254 |

Mental calculations (AC) | - | - | - | - | 0.59 (0.25) | 0.30 (0.25) | 17.52 | <0.001 | 0.66 (0.23) | 0.52 (0.18) | 5.408 | 0.022 |

Number lines 0–100 (PAE) | 15.67 (7.46) | 23.21 (8.37) | 15.51 | <0.001 | 7.7 (3.88) | 11.24 (4.65) | 10.85 | 0.002 | 5.77 (1.79) | 8.92 (4.40) | 22.374 | <0.001 |

Number lines 0–1000 (PAE) | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | 8.82 (4.81) | 16.13 (6.69) | 27.984 | <0.001 |

Squares (AC) | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | 0.62 (0.21) | 0.45 (0.23) | 9.514 | 0.003 |

Building blocks (AC) | 0.63 (0.25) | 0.46 (0.29) | 7.39 | 0.008 | 0.79 (0.27) | 0.72 (0.26) | 0.82 | 0.368 | 0.83 (0.23) | 0.77 (0.18) | 1.029 | 0.313 |

Word problems (AC) | - | - | - | - | 0.49 (0.30) | 0.23 (0.26) | 10.85 | 0.001 | 0.40 (0.25) | 0.28 (0.16) | 3.743 | 0.041 |

Calculation principles (AC) | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | 0.26 (0.24) | 0.09 (0.09) | 7.801 | 0.006 |

Numerical patterns (AC) | 0.25 (0.15) | 0.08 (0.09) | 21.95 | <0.001 | 0.42 (0.18) | 0.28 (0.16) | 6.78 | 0.011 | 0.46 (0.17) | 0.41 (0.15) | 1.240 | 0.268 |

Individual Measures | TA | MD | F_{1,278} | Sig |
---|---|---|---|---|

n = 212 | n = 76 | |||

M (SD) | M (SD) | |||

Dots comparison (AC) | 0.67 (0.09) | 0.64 (0.09) | 5.287 | 0.022 |

Single-digit numbers comparison (AC) | 0.99 (0.04) | 0.99 (0.03) | 0.103 | 0.749 |

Single-digit numbers comparison (RT) | 2239 (244) | 2226 (290) | 3.466 | 0.064 |

Multidigit numbers comparison (AC) | 0.88 (0.11) | 0.79 (0.14) | 28.790 | <0.001 |

Multidigit numbers comparison (RT) | 2885 (352) | 3009 (478) | 4.31 | 0.039 |

Numbers dictation (AC) | 0.94 (0.12) | 0.87 (0.17) | 14.752 | <0.001 |

Numbers dictation (RT) | 4079 (593) | 4211 (811) | 0.694 | 0.405 |

Next number (AC) | 0.93 (0.11) | 0.91 (0.17) | 2.395 | 0.123 |

Next number (RT) | 3125 (543) | 3310 (724) | 3.653 | 0.057 |

Previous number (AC) | 0.96 (0.11) | 0.95 (0.07) | 0.591 | 0.443 |

Previous number (RT) | 2936 (488) | 2961 (578) | 0.333 | 0.564 |

Subitizing (AC) | 0.87 (0.11) | 0.85 (0.12) | 3.725 | 0.055 |

Enumeration (AC) | 0.92 (0.11) | 0.90 (0.16) | 1.949 | 0.164 |

Enumeration (RT) | 5935 (1209) | 6392 (1480) | 5.238 | 0.023 |

Addition facts retrieval (AC) | 0.98 (0.05) | 0.96 (0.06) | 1.073 | 0.301 |

Addition facts retrieval (RT) | 2878 (598) | 3237 (902) | 14.173 | <0.001 |

Multiplication facts retrieval (AC) | 0.96 (0.08) | 0.90 (0.17) | 7.244 | 0.008 |

Multiplication facts retrieval (RT) | 4990 (2215) | 5827 (2165) | 6.403 | 0.012 |

Mental calculations (AC) | 0.87 (0.12) | 0.72 (0.21) | 54.627 | <0.001 |

Number lines 0–100 (PAE) | 4.50 (1.33) | 5.68 (2.06) | 30.571 | <0.001 |

Number lines 0–1000 (PAE) | 5.42 (2.93) | 9.43 (4.58) | 70.988 | <0.001 |

Squares (AC) | 0.77 (0.16) | 0.66 (0.18) | 24.387 | <0.001 |

Building blocks (AC) | 0.92 (0.14) | 0.86 (0.19) | 8.479 | 0.004 |

Word problems (AC) | 0.75 (0.24) | 0.48 (0.28) | 60.986 | <0.001 |

Calculation principles (AC) | 0.44 (0.24) | 0.31 (0.24) | 13.964 | <0.001 |

Numerical patterns (AC) | 0.62 (0.20) | 0.47 (0.16) | 30.403 | <0.001 |

Domain | Subtests | Criterion | Grade 1 | Grade 2 | Grade 3 | Grade 4 | Grade 5 | Grade 6 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Core | Dots comparison (AC) ^{α} | STMC | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | |||

MD-TA | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | |||||

Single-digit numbers comparison (AC) ^{α} | STMC | |||||||

MDC | ✓ | |||||||

Single-digit numbers comparison (RT) | STMC | ✓ | ||||||

MD-TA | ✓ | |||||||

Subitizing | STMC | ✓ | ✓ | |||||

MD-TA | ✓ | ✓ | ||||||

Memory | Numbers dictation (AC) | STMC | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | |

MD-TA | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ||

Numbers dictation (RT) ^{α} | STMC | |||||||

MD-TA | ||||||||

Next number (AC) | STMC | ✓ | ✓ | |||||

MD-TA | ||||||||

Next number (RT) ^{α} | STMC | |||||||

MD-TA | ||||||||

Previous number (AC) | STMC | ✓ | ✓ | |||||

MD-TA | ||||||||

Previous number (RT) ^{α} | STMC | |||||||

MD-TA | ||||||||

Enumeration (AC) | STMC | ✓ | ✓ | |||||

MD-TA | ✓ | |||||||

Enumeration (RT) | STMC | ✓ | ||||||

MD-TA | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | |||||

Addition facts retrieval (AC) | STMC | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ||||

MD-TA | ✓ | |||||||

Addition facts retrieval (RT) | STMC | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | |||

MD-TA | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ||||

Multiplication facts retrieval (AC) | STMC | ✓ | ✓ | |||||

MD-TA | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | |||||

Multiplication facts retrieval (RT) | STMC | ✓ | ✓ | |||||

MD-TA | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | |||||

Reasoning | Multidigit numbers comparison (AC) ^{α} | STMC | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | |

MD-TA | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | |||

Multidigit numbers comparison (RT) | STMC | ✓ | ||||||

MD-TA | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ||||

Mental calculations | STMC | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ||

MD-TA | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | |||

Word problems | STMC | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ||

MD-TA | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | |||

Calculation principles | STMC | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ||||

MD-TA | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ||||

Numerical patterns | STMC | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | |

MD-TA | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | |||

Visual-spatial | Number lines 0–100 | STMC | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ |

MD-TA | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ||

Number lines 0–1000 | STMC | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | |||

MD-TA | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ||||

Squares ^{α} | STMC | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | |||

MD-TA | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ||||

Building blocks | STMC | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | |||

MD-TA | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ |

© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Karagiannakis, G.; Noël, M.-P. Mathematical Profile Test: A Preliminary Evaluation of an Online Assessment for Mathematics Skills of Children in Grades 1–6. *Behav. Sci.* **2020**, *10*, 126.
https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10080126

**AMA Style**

Karagiannakis G, Noël M-P. Mathematical Profile Test: A Preliminary Evaluation of an Online Assessment for Mathematics Skills of Children in Grades 1–6. *Behavioral Sciences*. 2020; 10(8):126.
https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10080126

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Karagiannakis, Giannis, and Marie-Pascale Noël. 2020. "Mathematical Profile Test: A Preliminary Evaluation of an Online Assessment for Mathematics Skills of Children in Grades 1–6" *Behavioral Sciences* 10, no. 8: 126.
https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10080126