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Exercise Increases Adiponectin and Reduces Leptin Levels in Prediabetic and Diabetic Individuals: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

1
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstraße 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria
2
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstraβe 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Med. Sci. 2018, 6(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci6040097
Received: 4 September 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 25 October 2018 / Published: 30 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases)
It is speculated that lifestyle interventions known to improve diabetic metabolic state may exert their effects via adipokines. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the chronic effects of physical exercise on adiponectin and leptin levels in adult prediabetic and diabetic individuals. PubMed, Embase, Scopus, The Cochrane Library, clinicaltrials.gov, and WHO Clinical Trials Registry were searched for randomized controlled trials. Pooled effects of interventions were assessed as mean difference (MD) with random effects model. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to test data robustness and subgroup analysis for study heterogeneity. Twenty-two trials with 2996 individuals were included in the meta-analysis. Physical exercise increased levels of adiponectin (MD: 0.42 µg/mL; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.23, 0.60, p < 0.00001, n = 19 trials) and reduced leptin levels (MD: −1.89 ng/mL; 95% CI, −2.64, −1.14, p < 0.00001, n = 14 trials). These results were robust and remained significant after sensitivity analysis. Study heterogeneity was generally high. As for physical exercise modalities, aerobic exercise, but not other modalities, increased adiponectin and reduced leptin levels. In conclusion, physical exercise and, specifically, aerobic exercise, leads to higher adiponectin and lower leptin levels in prediabetic and diabetic adults. However, cautious interpretation of current findings is warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: exercise; adipokines; diabetes mellitus exercise; adipokines; diabetes mellitus
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Becic, T.; Studenik, C.; Hoffmann, G. Exercise Increases Adiponectin and Reduces Leptin Levels in Prediabetic and Diabetic Individuals: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Med. Sci. 2018, 6, 97.

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