Next Article in Journal
Maternal Under- and Over-Nutrition during Gestation Causes Islet Hypertrophy and Sex-Specific Changes to Pancreas DNA Methylation in Fetal Sheep
Next Article in Special Issue
High Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Slovenian Wild Boars (Sus scrofa)
Previous Article in Journal
The Invasive Bank Vole (Myodes glareolus): A Model System for Studying Parasites and Ecoimmunology during a Biological Invasion
Previous Article in Special Issue
Survey of Zoonotic Bacterial Pathogens in Native Foxes in Central Chile: First Record of Brucella canis Exposure
 
 
Article

A Longitudinal Study of Hematology and Stress Biomarker Profiles in Young Asian Elephants (Elephas Maximus) in Relation to Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus (EEHV) in Thailand

1
Center of Elephant and Wildlife Research, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand
2
Department of Food Animal Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand
3
Veterinary Public Health Centre and Food Safety for Asia Pacific (VPHCAP), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand
4
Pattara Elephant Farm, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand
5
Mae Taeng Elephant Park and Clinic, Mae Thang, Chiang Mai 50150, Thailand
6
Center for Species Survival, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Front Royal, VA 22630, USA
7
Department of Companion Animal and Wildlife Clinics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rita Tinoco Torres
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2530; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092530
Received: 2 August 2021 / Revised: 22 August 2021 / Accepted: 23 August 2021 / Published: 28 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wildlife Diseases)
A change in hematology profiles is one indicator of EEHV infection before clinical signs appear; however, to be effective, individual baselines and age-matched reference values are needed. A longitudinal investigation of viremia, hematology values, and stress biomarkers was performed in three non-EEHV and six prior infected EEHV calves to better understand EEHV-HD-associated factors. Blood, saliva, and feces were collected for 1 year for analysis of complete blood count (CBC), viral load, glucocorticoids (GCs), and Immunoglobulin A (IgA). Results did not differ between the groups, except for one elephant that presented with EEHV-HD during the study and exhibited high viremia, altered hematology profiles, and decreased stress biomarker concentrations. Thus, as in other studies, hematology changes were associated with EEHV infection, while preliminary data in one calf suggests that stress-response measures might also be informative and warrant further investigation.
Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus hemorrhagic disease (EEHV-HD) is a virulent disease that causes severe hemorrhage and sudden death in Asian elephant calves. A change in hematology profiles is one indicator of infection before clinical signs appear; however, to be effective, individual baselines and age-matched reference values are needed. Stress has been speculated to be a factor in clinical EEHV cases, but relationships have not been demonstrated empirically. This study evaluated blood hematology and several stress response markers—salivary cortisol, fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM), salivary Immunoglobulin A (SIgA), and fecal IgA (FIgA) in samples collected for 1 year from three healthy calves with no EEHV history (non-EEHV), and six that had previously been infected, developed clinical signs and survived (prior-EEHV). Hematology values between non-EEHV and prior-EEHV elephants were not different and within published reference ranges. Concentrations of salivary cortisol, FGM, SIgA, and FIgA also were variable and showed seasonal differences, but no relationships to prior EEHV status. One of the prior EEHV calves became re-infected, developed hemorrhagic disease (HD), and died during the study period. That calf exhibited lymphocytopenia, monocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia. Additionally, all stress biomarker concentrations were lower in the 12 days before viremia was observed. Thus, as in other studies, changes in hematology occur with EEHV infection, while preliminary data in one calf suggests that stress-response measures might also be informative and should be studied further. View Full-Text
Keywords: Asian elephant; hematology parameters; stress indicators; immunoglobulin A; glucocorticoids; elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus Asian elephant; hematology parameters; stress indicators; immunoglobulin A; glucocorticoids; elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Boonprasert, K.; Yun, Y.; Kosaruk, W.; Towiboon, P.; Tankaew, P.; Punyapornwithaya, V.; Janyamathakul, T.; Muanghong, P.; Brown, J.L.; Thitaram, C.; Somgird, C. A Longitudinal Study of Hematology and Stress Biomarker Profiles in Young Asian Elephants (Elephas Maximus) in Relation to Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus (EEHV) in Thailand. Animals 2021, 11, 2530. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092530

AMA Style

Boonprasert K, Yun Y, Kosaruk W, Towiboon P, Tankaew P, Punyapornwithaya V, Janyamathakul T, Muanghong P, Brown JL, Thitaram C, Somgird C. A Longitudinal Study of Hematology and Stress Biomarker Profiles in Young Asian Elephants (Elephas Maximus) in Relation to Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus (EEHV) in Thailand. Animals. 2021; 11(9):2530. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092530

Chicago/Turabian Style

Boonprasert, Khajohnpat, Yaoprapa Yun, Worapong Kosaruk, Patcharapa Towiboon, Pallop Tankaew, Veerasak Punyapornwithaya, Thittaya Janyamathakul, Panida Muanghong, Janine L. Brown, Chatchote Thitaram, and Chaleamchat Somgird. 2021. "A Longitudinal Study of Hematology and Stress Biomarker Profiles in Young Asian Elephants (Elephas Maximus) in Relation to Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus (EEHV) in Thailand" Animals 11, no. 9: 2530. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092530

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop