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Article

How Management System Affects the Concentration of Retinol and α-Tocopherol in Plasma and Milk of Payoya Lactating Goats: Possible Use as Traceability Biomarkers

1
Department of Agronomy, Universidad de Sevilla, Ctra. Utrera km. 1, 41013 Seville, Spain
2
Unidad de Producción y Sanidad Animal, Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón (CITA), Avda. Montañana 930, 50059 Zaragoza, Spain
3
Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón—IA2 (CITA-Universidad de Zaragoza), 50059 Zaragoza, Spain
4
Department of Animal Pathology, Animal Production, Bromatology and Feed Technology, University Campus of Arucas, School of Veterinary Sciences, Universidad de las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35416 Aruca, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: José Perea and Ramón Arias
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2326; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082326
Received: 5 July 2021 / Revised: 31 July 2021 / Accepted: 3 August 2021 / Published: 6 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Competitiveness of Spanish Local Breeds)
The milk production systems in goats are mainly intensive and semi-extensive. In the former, the goats are housed and are fed a total mixed ration with vitamin supplementation. In the latter, the feeding of the goats is based on grazing, although with some supplementation with compound feed. Retinol and α-tocopherol that appear in these animals come from the feeding regime, since the animal cannot synthesize them. The objective of this study was to verify if the vitamins provided in different management systems of Payoya lactating goats are good markers of the production system. For this purpose, the content of carotenoids, retinol and α-tocopherol in the milk and plasma of the goats was quantified. Results showed an inverse relationship of the amount of these vitamins between milk and plasma. On the other hand, the metabolism of different vitamins depends on their origin (natural/synthetic), with natural α-tocopherol and synthetic retinol showing the highest amount in milk. Finally, it was found that these compounds can be good traceability tools which allows to guaranty to the consumer the origin of the products derived from these animals.
The retinol and α-tocopherol concentrations were quantified (μg/mL) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in both plasma and milk of goats from three management systems. The aim was to investigate if the compounds pass from feed to animals’ fluids and to evaluate their potential use as feeding regime biomarkers. A total of 45 Payoya dams were distributed in three groups according to management system during the first month of lactation: mountain grazing (MG), cultivated meadow (CM) and total mixed ration (TMR). TMR group had higher concentrations of retinol in both plasma (25.92 ± 3.61 at 30 days postpartum) and milk (8.26 ± 0.79 at 10 days postpartum), and they were also the unique animals whose milk contained detectable concentrations of α-tocopherol (3.15 ± 0.19 at parturition). However, MG and CM goats showed higher plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol (64.26 ± 14.56 and 44.65 ± 5.75 at 30 days postpartum, respectively). These results could imply differences in the bioavailability of supplemented vitamin A and natural β-carotene and between the natural/synthetic forms of α-tocopherol. An inverse relationship between the fluids (plasma/milk) in the contents of α-tocopherol and retinol was observed as lactation progressed. Since 80% of the animals were correctly classified using a discriminant analysis based on these vitamins, these compounds could be used as traceability biomarkers of feeding system, but further studies are necessary to know the possible passage to kid meat. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomarker; traceability; goat; carotenoids; retinol; α-tocopherol biomarker; traceability; goat; carotenoids; retinol; α-tocopherol
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MDPI and ACS Style

Roncero-Díaz, M.; Panea, B.; Argüello, A.; Alcalde, M.J. How Management System Affects the Concentration of Retinol and α-Tocopherol in Plasma and Milk of Payoya Lactating Goats: Possible Use as Traceability Biomarkers. Animals 2021, 11, 2326. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082326

AMA Style

Roncero-Díaz M, Panea B, Argüello A, Alcalde MJ. How Management System Affects the Concentration of Retinol and α-Tocopherol in Plasma and Milk of Payoya Lactating Goats: Possible Use as Traceability Biomarkers. Animals. 2021; 11(8):2326. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082326

Chicago/Turabian Style

Roncero-Díaz, Mercedes, Begoña Panea, Anastasio Argüello, and María J. Alcalde. 2021. "How Management System Affects the Concentration of Retinol and α-Tocopherol in Plasma and Milk of Payoya Lactating Goats: Possible Use as Traceability Biomarkers" Animals 11, no. 8: 2326. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082326

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