Cannabinoid and Cannabinoid-Related Receptors in the Myenteric Plexus of the Porcine Ileum
Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences (UNI EN ISO 9001:2008), University of Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra, 50, 40064 Ozzano dell’Emilia, Italy
R&D Division, Vetagro S.p.A., via Porro 2, 42124 Reggio Emilia, Italy
Institute for Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Bischofsholer Damm 15, 30173 Hannover, Germany
R&D Division, Vetagro, Inc., 116 W. Jackson Blvd., Suite #320, Chicago, IL 60604, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors shared the senior authorship of this study.
Academic Editors: Paola Scocco, De Elena Felice and Alessandro Malfatti
Received: 29 December 2020
Revised: 16 January 2021
Accepted: 19 January 2021
Published: 21 January 2021
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has opened the door to novel therapeutical approaches targeting cancer, pain, anxiety, stress, and inflammatory diseases. The ECS is ubiquitously expressed in almost all members of Animalia, but its precise localization outside the central nervous system is still under investigation. In this study, the localization of the main and related cannabinoid receptors in the myenteric plexus of the porcine ileum was immunohistochemically analyzed. The myenteric plexus neurons were found to be positive for cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) and the cannabinoid-related receptors transient potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1), transient potential ankyrin receptor 1 (TRPA1), and serotonin receptor 5-HT1a (5-HT1aR). In addition, the ECS receptors were also located on nerve fibers, the tunica muscularis, and the endothelium. The wide distribution of cannabinoid and cannabinoid-related receptors in the myenteric plexus provides the anatomical basis for additional investigation, suggesting the possible role of the ECS in treating pathological conditions in livestock.