Next Article in Journal
Discriminant Canonical Analysis of the Contribution of Spanish and Arabian Purebred Horses to the Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Hispano-Arabian Horses
Next Article in Special Issue
Distinct Pattern of NPY in Gastro–Entero–Pancreatic System of Goat Kids Fed with a New Standardized Red Orange and Lemon Extract (RLE)
Previous Article in Journal
Milk Production, Body Weight, Body Condition Score, Activity, and Rumination of Organic Dairy Cattle Grazing Two Different Pasture Systems Incorporating Cool- and Warm-Season Forages
Previous Article in Special Issue
Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in a Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma of a Horse: Future Perspectives
Article

Cannabinoid and Cannabinoid-Related Receptors in the Myenteric Plexus of the Porcine Ileum

1
Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences (UNI EN ISO 9001:2008), University of Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra, 50, 40064 Ozzano dell’Emilia, Italy
2
R&D Division, Vetagro S.p.A., via Porro 2, 42124 Reggio Emilia, Italy
3
Institute for Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Bischofsholer Damm 15, 30173 Hannover, Germany
4
R&D Division, Vetagro, Inc., 116 W. Jackson Blvd., Suite #320, Chicago, IL 60604, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors shared the senior authorship of this study.
Academic Editors: Paola Scocco, De Elena Felice and Alessandro Malfatti
Animals 2021, 11(2), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020263
Received: 29 December 2020 / Revised: 16 January 2021 / Accepted: 19 January 2021 / Published: 21 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunohistochemical and Physiological Research on Farm Animals)
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has opened the door to novel therapeutical approaches targeting cancer, pain, anxiety, stress, and inflammatory diseases. The ECS is ubiquitously expressed in almost all members of Animalia, but its precise localization outside the central nervous system is still under investigation. In this study, the localization of the main and related cannabinoid receptors in the myenteric plexus of the porcine ileum was immunohistochemically analyzed. The myenteric plexus neurons were found to be positive for cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) and the cannabinoid-related receptors transient potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1), transient potential ankyrin receptor 1 (TRPA1), and serotonin receptor 5-HT1a (5-HT1aR). In addition, the ECS receptors were also located on nerve fibers, the tunica muscularis, and the endothelium. The wide distribution of cannabinoid and cannabinoid-related receptors in the myenteric plexus provides the anatomical basis for additional investigation, suggesting the possible role of the ECS in treating pathological conditions in livestock.
An important piece of evidence has shown that molecules acting on cannabinoid receptors influence gastrointestinal motility and induce beneficial effects on gastrointestinal inflammation and visceral pain. The aim of this investigation was to immunohistochemically localize the distribution of canonical cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) and type 2 (CB2R) and the cannabinoid-related receptors transient potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1), transient potential ankyrin receptor 1 (TRPA1), and serotonin receptor 5-HT1a (5-HT1aR) in the myenteric plexus (MP) of pig ileum. CB1R, TRPV1, TRPA1, and 5-HT1aR were expressed, with different intensities in the cytoplasm of MP neurons. For each receptor, the proportions of the immunoreactive neurons were evaluated using the anti-HuC/HuD antibody. These receptors were also localized on nerve fibers (CB1R, TRPA1), smooth muscle cells of tunica muscularis (CB1R, 5-HT1aR), and endothelial cells of blood vessels (TRPV1, TRPA1, 5-HT1aR). The nerve varicosities were also found to be immunoreactive for both TRPV1 and 5-HT1aR. No immunoreactivity was documented for CB2R. Cannabinoid and cannabinoid-related receptors herein investigated showed a wide distribution in the enteric neurons and nerve fibers of the pig MP. These results could provide an anatomical basis for additional research, supporting the therapeutic use of cannabinoid receptor agonists in relieving motility disorders in porcine enteropathies. View Full-Text
Keywords: CB1R; CB2R; TRPV1; TRPA1; 5-HT1aR; endocannabinoid system; immunohistochemistry; pig; enteric nervous system CB1R; CB2R; TRPV1; TRPA1; 5-HT1aR; endocannabinoid system; immunohistochemistry; pig; enteric nervous system
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Toschi, A.; Galiazzo, G.; Piva, A.; Tagliavia, C.; Mazzuoli-Weber, G.; Chiocchetti, R.; Grilli, E. Cannabinoid and Cannabinoid-Related Receptors in the Myenteric Plexus of the Porcine Ileum. Animals 2021, 11, 263. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020263

AMA Style

Toschi A, Galiazzo G, Piva A, Tagliavia C, Mazzuoli-Weber G, Chiocchetti R, Grilli E. Cannabinoid and Cannabinoid-Related Receptors in the Myenteric Plexus of the Porcine Ileum. Animals. 2021; 11(2):263. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020263

Chicago/Turabian Style

Toschi, Andrea, Giorgia Galiazzo, Andrea Piva, Claudio Tagliavia, Gemma Mazzuoli-Weber, Roberto Chiocchetti, and Ester Grilli. 2021. "Cannabinoid and Cannabinoid-Related Receptors in the Myenteric Plexus of the Porcine Ileum" Animals 11, no. 2: 263. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020263

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop