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Article

Discriminant Canonical Analysis of the Contribution of Spanish and Arabian Purebred Horses to the Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Hispano-Arabian Horses

1
Department of Genetics, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba, Spain
2
Department of Animal Science, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95617, USA
3
Centro Agropecuario Provincial de Córdoba, Diputación Provincial de Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba, Spain
4
Unión Española de Ganaderos de Pura Raza Hispano-Árabe, 41001 Sevilla, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maria Cristina Cozzi
Animals 2021, 11(2), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020269
Received: 8 December 2020 / Revised: 11 January 2021 / Accepted: 18 January 2021 / Published: 21 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Diversity in Livestock and Companion Animals)
The demographic and genetic diversity structure and the contributions of Spanish (PRE) and Arabian Purebred (PRá) horses to the process of conformation of the Hispano-Arabian (Há) horse breed were evaluated. Genetic diversity parameters (inbreeding coefficient, genetic conservation index, coancestry coefficient, non-random mating degree, relatedness coefficient, maximum, complete, and equivalent generations, and number of offspring) were evaluated using a discriminant canonical analysis to determine the partial contributions of each founder breed to the development of Há horse breed. The calculation of Nei genetic distances suggests the overlapping could be estimated in 29.55% of the gene pool of the Há having a PRE origin while 70.45% of the gene pool of the breed may derive from a PRá origin. Although a progressive loss of founder representation may have occurred, breeding strategies implemented considering mating between animals with the highest genetic conservation indices (GCI) may compensate for its effects.
Genetic diversity and population structure were analyzed using the historical and current pedigree information of the Arabian (PRá), Spanish Purebred (PRE), and Hispano-Arabian (Há) horse breeds. Genetic diversity parameters were computed and a canonical discriminant analysis was used to determine the contributions of ancestor breeds to the genetic diversity of the Há horse. Pedigree records were available for 207,100 animals born between 1884 and 2019. Nei’s distances and the equivalent subpopulations number indicated the existence of a highly structured, integrated population for the Há breed, which is more closely genetically related to PRá than PRE horses. An increase in the length of the generation interval might be an effective solution to reduce the increase in inbreeding found in the studied breeds (8.44%, 8.50%, and 2.89%, for PRá, PRE, and Há, respectively). Wright’s fixation statistics indicated slight interherd inbreeding. Pedigree completeness suggested genetic parameters were highly reliable. High GCI levels found for number of founders and non-founders and their relationship to the evolution of inbreeding permit controlling potential deleterious negative effects from excessively frequent mating between interrelated individuals. For instance, the use of individuals presenting high GCI may balance founders’ gene contributions and consequently preserve genetic diversity levels (current genetic diversity loss in PRá, PRE, and Há is 6%, 7%, and 4%, respectively). View Full-Text
Keywords: canonical discriminant analysis; Wright’s F statistics; Nei genetic distances; horse; inbreeding; Arabian; Spanish; Pedigree structure analysis canonical discriminant analysis; Wright’s F statistics; Nei genetic distances; horse; inbreeding; Arabian; Spanish; Pedigree structure analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Marín Navas, C.; Delgado Bermejo, J.V.; McLean, A.K.; León Jurado, J.M.; Rodriguez de la Borbolla y Ruiberriz de Torres, A.; Navas González, F.J. Discriminant Canonical Analysis of the Contribution of Spanish and Arabian Purebred Horses to the Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Hispano-Arabian Horses. Animals 2021, 11, 269. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020269

AMA Style

Marín Navas C, Delgado Bermejo JV, McLean AK, León Jurado JM, Rodriguez de la Borbolla y Ruiberriz de Torres A, Navas González FJ. Discriminant Canonical Analysis of the Contribution of Spanish and Arabian Purebred Horses to the Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Hispano-Arabian Horses. Animals. 2021; 11(2):269. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020269

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marín Navas, Carmen, Juan V. Delgado Bermejo, Amy K. McLean, José M. León Jurado, Antonio Rodriguez de la Borbolla y Ruiberriz de Torres, and Francisco J. Navas González 2021. "Discriminant Canonical Analysis of the Contribution of Spanish and Arabian Purebred Horses to the Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Hispano-Arabian Horses" Animals 11, no. 2: 269. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020269

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