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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Acrylamide Supplementation on the CART-, VAChT-, and nNOS-Immunoreactive Nervous Structures in the Porcine Stomach

Department of Clinical Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(4), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10040555 (registering DOI)
Received: 19 February 2020 / Revised: 24 March 2020 / Accepted: 25 March 2020 / Published: 26 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunohistochemical and Physiological Research on Farm Animals)
Acrylamide is found in food products manufactured with high-temperature processing, and exposure to acrylamide contained in food products may cause a potential risk to human health. The aim of this investigation was to demonstrate the changes in the population of CART-, nNOS-, and VAChT-immunoreactive enteric neurons in the porcine stomach in response to supplementation of low and high acrylamide doses. The study was carried out with 15 Danish landrace gilts divided into three experimental groups: the control group—animals were administered empty gelatine capsules; the low-dose group—animals were administrated a tolerable daily intake (TDI) dose (0.5 µg/kg of body weight (b.w.)/day) of acrylamide capsules, and the high-dose group—animals were administrated high-dose (ten times higher than TDI: 5 µg/kg b.w./day) acrylamide capsules for 28 days. Using the double immunofluorescence staining method, it was established that supplementation with low and high doses of acrylamide resulted in alterations of the porcine stomach neuron phenotype, which was reflected in an increased number of CART-, VAChT-, and nNOS-immunoreactive neurons. These changes were accompanied by an increased density of CART-, VAChT-, and nNOS-positive fibres. The results suggest that the enteric nervous system plays an important role in protecting the gastrointestinal tract during acrylamide intoxication.
Keywords: acrylamide; stomach; enteric nervous system; CART; VAChT; nNOS; pig acrylamide; stomach; enteric nervous system; CART; VAChT; nNOS; pig
MDPI and ACS Style

Palus, K.; Bulc, M.; Całka, J. Effect of Acrylamide Supplementation on the CART-, VAChT-, and nNOS-Immunoreactive Nervous Structures in the Porcine Stomach. Animals 2020, 10, 555.

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