Next Article in Journal
Musical Dogs: A Review of the Influence of Auditory Enrichment on Canine Health and Behavior
Previous Article in Journal
Embryonic Thermal Manipulation Affects the Antioxidant Response to Post-Hatch Thermal Exposure in Broiler Chickens
Previous Article in Special Issue
In Vivo Performances, Carcass Traits, and Meat Quality of Pigs Fed Olive Cake Processing Waste
Open AccessArticle

Potentials and Challenges of Former Food Products (Food Leftover) as Alternative Feed Ingredients

1
Department of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety, VESPA, University of Milan, 20134 Milano, Italy
2
Agroscope, Institute for Livestock Sciences, 1725 Posieux, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(1), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10010125
Received: 13 December 2019 / Revised: 7 January 2020 / Accepted: 7 January 2020 / Published: 13 January 2020
This review focuses on the use of ex-foods, an alternative feed ingredient in farm animal diets, composed by processed and ready-to-eat food products no longer suitable for human consumption. Such foods, which are also called former food products, are usually buried in landfill sites, despite their high potential of being used as sustainable feed ingredients. In order to obtain proper balanced diets by using these alternative feed ingredients, several aspects have to be considered. In this respect, this paper aims to address the state of the art about food leftovers used in animal nutrition in general and in pig diets specifically.
Former food products (FFPs) are foodstuffs that, even though they are nutritious and safe, have lost their value on the human consumption market for different reasons, such as production errors leading to broken or intermediate foodstuffs, surpluses caused by logistical challenges of daily delivery, or any other reason. The nutritional features of FFPs include carbohydrates, free sugars, and possibly also fats. FFPs tend to have been processed through various technological and heat treatments that impact the nutrients and the kinetics of digestion, as well as animal response and, particularly, gastro-intestinal health. This review integrates some of the most recently published works about the chemical composition, nutritional value, digestibility and glycaemic index of ex-foods. In addition, a view on the relationship between the use of FFPs and safety issues and their effects on pigs’ intestinal microbiota are also given. View Full-Text
Keywords: former foodstuff; ex-food; alternative feed ingredients; predicted glycaemic index; gut microbiota; feed safety; pigs former foodstuff; ex-food; alternative feed ingredients; predicted glycaemic index; gut microbiota; feed safety; pigs
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Luciano, A.; Tretola, M.; Ottoboni, M.; Baldi, A.; Cattaneo, D.; Pinotti, L. Potentials and Challenges of Former Food Products (Food Leftover) as Alternative Feed Ingredients. Animals 2020, 10, 125.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop