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Open AccessArticle

Probiotic Lactobacillus sp. Strains Inhibit Growth, Adhesion, Biofilm Formation, and Gene Expression of Bacterial Vaginosis-Inducing Gardnerella vaginalis

1
College of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
3
Shanghai Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, China State Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, Shanghai 201203, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Laurent Urios
Microorganisms 2021, 9(4), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040728
Received: 19 February 2021 / Revised: 26 March 2021 / Accepted: 28 March 2021 / Published: 31 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multispecies Biofilms and Microbial Interactions)
Gardnerella vaginalis contributes significantly to bacterial vaginosis, which causes an ecological imbalance in vaginal microbiota and presents with the depletion of Lactobacillus sp. Lactobacillus supplementation was reported to be an approach to treat bacterial vaginosis. We investigated the applicability of three Lactobacillus sp. strains (Lactobacillus delbrueckii DM8909, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ATCC14917, and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ZX27) based on their probiotic abilities in vitro. The three candidate Lactobacillus sp. strains for bacterial vaginosis therapy showed distinct properties in auto-aggregation ability, hydrophobicity, adhesion to cervical epithelial cells, and survivability in 0.01% hydrogen peroxide. Lpb. plantarum ZX27 showed a higher yield in producing short-chain fatty acids and lactic acid among the three candidate strains, and all three Lactobacillus sp. strains inhibited the growth and adhesion of G. vaginalis. Furthermore, we discovered that the culture supernatant of Lactobacillus sp. exhibited anti-biofilm activity against G. vaginalis. In particular, the Lpb. plantarum ZX27 supernatant treatment decreased the expression of genes related to virulence factors, adhesion, biofilm formation, metabolism, and antimicrobial resistance in biofilm-forming cells and suspended cells. Moreover, Lactobacillus sp. decreased the upregulated expression of interleukin−8 in HeLa cells induced by G. vaginalis or hydrogen peroxide. These results demonstrate the efficacy of Lactobacillus sp. application for treating bacterial vaginosis by limiting the growth, adhesion, biofilm formation, and virulence properties of G. vaginalis. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lactobacillus; Gardnerella vaginalis; biofilm; gene expression; anti-inflammatory Lactobacillus; Gardnerella vaginalis; biofilm; gene expression; anti-inflammatory
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MDPI and ACS Style

Qian, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhao, D.; Yang, P.; Gao, F.; Lu, C.; Yin, Y.; Kan, S.; Chen, D. Probiotic Lactobacillus sp. Strains Inhibit Growth, Adhesion, Biofilm Formation, and Gene Expression of Bacterial Vaginosis-Inducing Gardnerella vaginalis. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 728. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040728

AMA Style

Qian Z, Zhu H, Zhao D, Yang P, Gao F, Lu C, Yin Y, Kan S, Chen D. Probiotic Lactobacillus sp. Strains Inhibit Growth, Adhesion, Biofilm Formation, and Gene Expression of Bacterial Vaginosis-Inducing Gardnerella vaginalis. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(4):728. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040728

Chicago/Turabian Style

Qian, Zhixiang; Zhu, Hui; Zhao, Dan; Yang, Ping; Gao, Fei; Lu, Chunyi; Yin, Yu; Kan, Shidong; Chen, Daijie. 2021. "Probiotic Lactobacillus sp. Strains Inhibit Growth, Adhesion, Biofilm Formation, and Gene Expression of Bacterial Vaginosis-Inducing Gardnerella vaginalis" Microorganisms 9, no. 4: 728. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040728

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