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SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic: Not the First, Not the Last
 
 
Article

Genomic Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in Madrid, Spain, during the First Wave of the Pandemic: Fast Spread and Early Dominance by D614G Variants

1
Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre and Instituto de Investigación Hospital 12 de Octubre (imas12), 28009 Madrid, Spain
2
Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario La Paz and Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), 28046 Madrid, Spain
3
Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal and Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria (IRYCIS), 28034 Madrid, Spain
4
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red (CIBER) in Epidemiology and Publich Health, 28029 Madrid, Spain
5
Red Española de Investigación en Patología Infecciosa (REIPI), 28009 Madrid, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
SARS-CoV-2 Working Groups: H12O1: Irene Muñoz-Gallego, Jennifer Villa, Maria del Carmen Martín-Higuera, Mª Angeles Meléndez, Carmen Alhena Reyes, Marta Rolo, Gonzalo Rivas, Mayra Alexandra Sigcha, Alberto Gomez-Herrador; HLP2: María Dolores Montero-Vega, María Pilar Romero, Silvia García-Bujalance, Emilio Cendejas Bueno, Carlos Toro-Rueda, Guillermo Ruiz-Carrascoso, Fernando Lázaro Perona, Iker Falces-Romero, Almudena Gutiérrez-Arroyo, Patricia Girón de Velasco-Sada, Mario Ruiz-Bastián, Marina Alguacil-Guillén, Patricia González-Donapetry, Gladys Virginia Guedez-López, Paloma García-Clemente, María Gracia Liras Hernández, Consuelo García-Sánchez, Miguel Sánchez-Castellano and Sol San José-Villar; HRYC3: Mario Rodríguez-Domínguez, Beatriz Romero-Hernández; Melanie Abreu; Daniel Marcos, Joel Marinovich, Federico Becerra, José Mª López-Pintor.
Academic Editor: Paolo Calistri
Microorganisms 2021, 9(2), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020454
Received: 3 February 2021 / Revised: 17 February 2021 / Accepted: 19 February 2021 / Published: 22 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2: Epidemiology and Pathogenesis)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first detected in Madrid, Spain, on 25 February 2020. It increased in frequency very fast and by the end of May more than 70,000 cases had been confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). To study the lineages and the diversity of the viral population during this first epidemic wave in Madrid we sequenced 224 SARS-CoV-2 viral genomes collected from three hospitals from February to May 2020. All the known major lineages were found in this set of samples, though B.1 and B.1.5 were the most frequent ones, accounting for more than 60% of the sequences. In parallel with the B lineages and sublineages, the D614G mutation in the Spike protein sequence was detected soon after the detection of the first coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) case in Madrid and in two weeks became dominant, being found in 80% of the samples and remaining at this level during all the study periods. The lineage composition of the viral population found in Madrid was more similar to the European population than to the publicly available Spanish data, underlining the role of Madrid as a national and international transport hub. In agreement with this, phylodynamic analysis suggested multiple independent entries before the national lockdown and air transportation restrictions. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; genome sequences COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; genome sequences
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MDPI and ACS Style

Viedma, E.; Dahdouh, E.; González-Alba, J.M.; González-Bodi, S.; Martínez-García, L.; Lázaro-Perona, F.; Recio, R.; Rodríguez-Tejedor, M.; Folgueira, M.D.; Cantón, R.; Delgado, R.; García-Rodríguez, J.; Galán, J.C.; Mingorance, J.; on behalf of the SARS-CoV-2 Working Groups. Genomic Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in Madrid, Spain, during the First Wave of the Pandemic: Fast Spread and Early Dominance by D614G Variants. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 454. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020454

AMA Style

Viedma E, Dahdouh E, González-Alba JM, González-Bodi S, Martínez-García L, Lázaro-Perona F, Recio R, Rodríguez-Tejedor M, Folgueira MD, Cantón R, Delgado R, García-Rodríguez J, Galán JC, Mingorance J, on behalf of the SARS-CoV-2 Working Groups. Genomic Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in Madrid, Spain, during the First Wave of the Pandemic: Fast Spread and Early Dominance by D614G Variants. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(2):454. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020454

Chicago/Turabian Style

Viedma, Esther, Elias Dahdouh, José María González-Alba, Sara González-Bodi, Laura Martínez-García, Fernando Lázaro-Perona, Raúl Recio, María Rodríguez-Tejedor, María Dolores Folgueira, Rafael Cantón, Rafael Delgado, Julio García-Rodríguez, Juan Carlos Galán, Jesús Mingorance, and on behalf of the SARS-CoV-2 Working Groups. 2021. "Genomic Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in Madrid, Spain, during the First Wave of the Pandemic: Fast Spread and Early Dominance by D614G Variants" Microorganisms 9, no. 2: 454. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020454

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