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Article

Impact of Marine Aquaculture on the Microbiome Associated with Nearby Holobionts: The Case of Patella caerulea Living in Proximity of Sea Bream Aquaculture Cages

1
Unit of Microbiome Science and Biotechnology, Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology (FaBiT), Alma Mater Studiorum—University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
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Fano Marine Center, The Inter-Institute Center for Research on Marine Biodiversity, Resources and Biotechnologies, Viale Adriatico 1/N, 61032 Fano, Italy
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Institute for Biological Resources and Marine Biotechnology, National Research Council (IRBIM-CNR), 60125 Ancona, Italy
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Marine Science Group, Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Bologna, Via Selmi 3, 40126 Bologna, Italy
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Deptartment of Global Surveillance, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jorge Barros-Velázquez
Microorganisms 2021, 9(2), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020455
Received: 15 January 2021 / Revised: 18 February 2021 / Accepted: 19 February 2021 / Published: 22 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiomes for the Sustainable Production of Safe and Secure Foods)
Aquaculture plays a major role in the coastal economy of the Mediterranean Sea. This raises the issue of the impact of fish cages on the surrounding environment. Here, we explore the impact of aquaculture on the composition of the digestive gland microbiome of a representative locally dwelling wild holobiont, the grazer gastropod Patella caerulea, at an aquaculture facility located in Southern Sicily, Italy. The microbiome was assessed in individuals collected on sea bream aquaculture cages and on a rocky coastal tract located about 1.2 km from the cages, as the control site. Patella caerulea microbiome variations were explained in the broad marine metacommunity context, assessing the water and sediment microbiome composition at both sites, and characterizing the microbiome associated with the farmed sea bream. The P. caerulea digestive gland microbiome at the aquaculture site was characterized by a lower diversity, the loss of microorganisms sensitive to heavy metal contamination, and by the acquisition of fish pathogens and parasites. However, we also observed possible adaptive responses of the P. caerulea digestive gland microbiome at the aquaculture site, including the acquisition of putative bacteria able to deal with metal and sulfide accumulation, highlighting the inherent microbiome potential to drive the host acclimation to stressful conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: gastropoda; patella; marine holobionts; microbiome; aquaculture; 16S rRNA gene sequencing gastropoda; patella; marine holobionts; microbiome; aquaculture; 16S rRNA gene sequencing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Palladino, G.; Rampelli, S.; Scicchitano, D.; Musella, M.; Quero, G.M.; Prada, F.; Mancuso, A.; Seyfarth, A.M.; Turroni, S.; Candela, M.; Biagi, E. Impact of Marine Aquaculture on the Microbiome Associated with Nearby Holobionts: The Case of Patella caerulea Living in Proximity of Sea Bream Aquaculture Cages. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 455. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020455

AMA Style

Palladino G, Rampelli S, Scicchitano D, Musella M, Quero GM, Prada F, Mancuso A, Seyfarth AM, Turroni S, Candela M, Biagi E. Impact of Marine Aquaculture on the Microbiome Associated with Nearby Holobionts: The Case of Patella caerulea Living in Proximity of Sea Bream Aquaculture Cages. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(2):455. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020455

Chicago/Turabian Style

Palladino, Giorgia, Simone Rampelli, Daniel Scicchitano, Margherita Musella, Grazia M. Quero, Fiorella Prada, Arianna Mancuso, Anne M. Seyfarth, Silvia Turroni, Marco Candela, and Elena Biagi. 2021. "Impact of Marine Aquaculture on the Microbiome Associated with Nearby Holobionts: The Case of Patella caerulea Living in Proximity of Sea Bream Aquaculture Cages" Microorganisms 9, no. 2: 455. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020455

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