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Review

Streptococcal Infections in Marine Mammals

1
Institute for Microbiology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Bischofsholer Damm 15, 30173 Hannover, Germany
2
Institute for Terrestrial and Aquatic Wildlife Research, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Werftstraße 6, 25761 Buesum, Germany
3
Institute of Microbiology and Epizootics, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universität Berlin, Robert-von-Ostertag-Strasse 7-13, 14163 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Glenn S. Tillotson
Microorganisms 2021, 9(2), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020350
Received: 2 December 2020 / Revised: 29 January 2021 / Accepted: 7 February 2021 / Published: 10 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology and Pathogenicity of Animal-Adapted Streptococci)
Marine mammals are sentinels for the marine ecosystem and threatened by numerous factors including infectious diseases. One of the most frequently isolated bacteria are beta-hemolytic streptococci. However, knowledge on ecology and epidemiology of streptococcal species in marine mammals is very limited. This review summarizes published reports on streptococcal species, which have been detected in marine mammals. Furthermore, we discuss streptococcal transmission between and adaptation to their marine mammalian hosts. We conclude that streptococci colonize and/or infect marine mammals very frequently, but in many cases, streptococci isolated from marine mammals have not been further identified. How these bacteria disseminate and adapt to their specific niches can only be speculated due to the lack of respective research. Considering the relevance of pathogenic streptococci for marine mammals as part of the marine ecosystem, it seems that they have been neglected and should receive scientific interest in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: streptococci; infectious diseases; marine mammals streptococci; infectious diseases; marine mammals
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MDPI and ACS Style

Numberger, D.; Siebert, U.; Fulde, M.; Valentin-Weigand, P. Streptococcal Infections in Marine Mammals. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 350. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020350

AMA Style

Numberger D, Siebert U, Fulde M, Valentin-Weigand P. Streptococcal Infections in Marine Mammals. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(2):350. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020350

Chicago/Turabian Style

Numberger, Daniela, Ursula Siebert, Marcus Fulde, and Peter Valentin-Weigand. 2021. "Streptococcal Infections in Marine Mammals" Microorganisms 9, no. 2: 350. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020350

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