Next Article in Journal
Chronic Inflammatory Diseases at Secondary Sites Ensuing Urogenital or Pulmonary Chlamydia Infections
Previous Article in Journal
Detection and Identification of Bacillus anthracis: From Conventional to Molecular Microbiology Methods
Open AccessArticle

Nuclear Gene Transformation in the Dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina

Department of Marine Sciences, University of Connecticut, 1080 Shennecossett Rd, Groton, CT 06340, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(1), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8010126
Received: 24 December 2019 / Revised: 10 January 2020 / Accepted: 14 January 2020 / Published: 16 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Microbial Biotechnology)
The lack of a robust gene transformation tool that allows proper expression of foreign genes and functional testing for the vast number of nuclear genes in dinoflagellates has greatly hampered our understanding of the fundamental biology in this ecologically important and evolutionarily unique lineage of microeukaryotes. Here, we report the development of a dinoflagellate expression vector containing various DNA elements from phylogenetically separate dinoflagellate lineages, an electroporation protocol, and successful expression of introduced genes in an early branching dinoflagellate, Oxyrrhis marina. This protocol, involving the use of Lonza’s Nucleofector and a codon-optimized antibiotic resistance gene, has been successfully used to produce consistent results in several independent experiments for O. marina. It is anticipated that this protocol will be adaptable for other dinoflagellates and will allow characterization of many novel dinoflagellate genes. View Full-Text
Keywords: dinoflagellates; gene transformation; molecular biology; marine biology dinoflagellates; gene transformation; molecular biology; marine biology
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Sprecher, B.N.; Zhang, H.; Lin, S. Nuclear Gene Transformation in the Dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 126.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop