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Microorganisms 2019, 7(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7020036

Inhibitory Effect of 7-Demethoxytylophorine on Penicillium italicum and its Possible Mechanism

1
Jiangxi Key Laboratory for Postharvest Technology and Nondestructive Testing of Fruits & Vegetables, Collaborative Innovation Center of Postharvest Key Technology and Quality Safety of Fruits and Vegetables, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, China
2
Pingxiang University, Pingxiang 337055, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 26 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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Abstract

7-demethoxytylophorine (DEM) is a phenanthroindolizidine alkaloid, which is reported to be effective in inhibiting leucocytes and regulation of human immunity. However, few studies reported the inhibitory effect of DEM against plant-pathogenic fungi, particularly postharvest pathogen Penicillium italicum (P. italicum). Current studies have investigated the antifungal activity of DEM through membrane damage and energy deficit in P. italicum. The results showed that the DEM potentially inhibits the growth of P. italicum in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro (mycelial growth and spore germination) tests showed great minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) (1.56 µg mL−1) and minimum fugicide concentration (MFC) (6.25 µg mL−1). Microscopic analyses showed that mycelial morphology of P. italicum was severely damaged following DEM treatment. Moreover, relative electrical conductivity and lysis ability assays showed that DEM treatment aids in destroying the integrity of plasma membranes that deplete reducing sugars and soluble proteins. The activity of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) demonstrated that DEM led to the disruption of TCA cycle in P. italicum mycelia. The results of this study led us to conclude that, DEM could be used as a natural antifungal agent for controlling postharvest blue mold disease of citrus fruits caused by P. italicum. View Full-Text
Keywords: 7-demethoxytylophorine; antifungal activity; Penicillium italicum; membrane integrity; energy deficit 7-demethoxytylophorine; antifungal activity; Penicillium italicum; membrane integrity; energy deficit
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Chen, C.; Qi, W.; Peng, X.; Chen, J.; Wan, C. Inhibitory Effect of 7-Demethoxytylophorine on Penicillium italicum and its Possible Mechanism. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 36.

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