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Open AccessArticle

The Influence of the Degradation of Tetracycline by Free Radicals from Riboflavin-5′-Phosphate Photolysis on Microbial Viability

1
Department of Science Education and Application, National Taichung University of Education, Taichung 40306, Taiwan
2
Department of Tourism and Leisure, Hsing-Wu University, New Taipei City 24452, Taiwan
3
College of Life and Health Science, Anhui Science and Technology University, Fengyang, Chuzhou 239000, China
4
Department of Biotechnology, Ming-Chuan University, Gui-Shan 33343, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(11), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7110500
Received: 12 September 2019 / Revised: 19 October 2019 / Accepted: 26 October 2019 / Published: 28 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance)
Tetracycline (TC) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic compound. Wastewater with TC may have an adverse effect on ecosystems. Riboflavin-5′-phosphate (FMN or flavin mononucleotide) is a non-toxic product of the phosphorylation of vitamin B2 and is required for the proper functioning of the humans. FMN is sensitized to ultraviolet (UV) and blue light radiation, as evidenced by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study inspects feasible applications of blue light on FMN so as to develop a valid way of degrading TC by FMN photolysis. We used the increased rate of bacterial survival as a practical indicator of antibiotic degradation. TC in the presence of FMN solution decomposed completely after 20 W/m2 of blue light irradiation (TCF treatment), and the degradation of TC (D-TCF) occurred after the photolytic process. After TCF treatment, colony-forming units (CFUs) of Escherichia coli (E. coli) were determined for the D-TCF solution. The CFU of E. coli preservation was 93.2% of the D-TCF solution (50 μg/mL of TC in the presence of 114 μg/mL of FMN solution treated with 20 W/m2 of blue light irradiation at 25 °C for 1 h) cultivation. The mass spectrum of D-TCF showed diagnostic ion signals at m/z 431.0 and 414.0 Da. The molecular formula of D-TCF was C21H22N2O8, and the exact mass was 430.44 g/mol. TC degradation by FMN photolysis can significantly decrease the antimicrobial ability of TC. The results expressed here regarding the influence of FMN photolysis on TC degradation offer an environmentally sound wastewater treatment method. View Full-Text
Keywords: blue light; tetracycline; free radicals; riboflavin-5′-phosphate; photolysis blue light; tetracycline; free radicals; riboflavin-5′-phosphate; photolysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, S.-T.; Lee, S.-Y.; Wang, S.-H.; Wu, C.-Y.; Yuann, J.-M.P.; He, S.; Cheng, C.-W.; Liang, J.-Y. The Influence of the Degradation of Tetracycline by Free Radicals from Riboflavin-5′-Phosphate Photolysis on Microbial Viability. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 500.

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