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Analysis of the Role of TpUB05 Antigen from Theileria parva in Immune Responses to Malaria in Humans Compared to Its Homologue in Plasmodium falciparum the UB05 Antigen

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Biotechnology Unit, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, P O. Box 63 Buea, Cameroon
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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, P. O. Box 63 Buea, Cameroon
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Biosciences Eastern and Central Africa—International Livestock Research Institute (BecA-ILRI) Hub, P. O. Box 30709 Nairobi, Kenya
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Centre for Tropical Livestock Genetics and Health, Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, The University of Edinburgh, Midlothian, Easter Bush Campus, EH25 9RG Edinburgh, UK
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Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Cameroon Christian University Institute, P.O. Box 5 Bali, Cameroon
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(4), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9040271
Received: 27 January 2020 / Revised: 3 April 2020 / Accepted: 6 April 2020 / Published: 8 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Immunological Responses and Immune Defense Mechanisms)
Despite the amount of resources deployed and the technological advancements in molecular biology, vaccinology, immunology, genetics, and biotechnology, there are still no effective vaccines against malaria. Immunity to malaria is usually seen to be species- and/or strain-specific. However, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting the possibility of the existence of cross-strain, cross-species, and cross-genus immune responses in apicomplexans. The principle of gene conservation indicates that homologues play a similar role in closely related organisms. The homologue of UB05 in Theileria parva is TpUB05 (XP_763711.1), which has been tested and shown to be associated with protective immunity in East Coast fever. In a bid to identify potent markers of protective immunity to aid malaria vaccine development, TpUB05 was tested in malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. It was observed that TpUB05 was better at detecting antigen-specific antibodies in plasma compared to UB05 when tested by ELISA. The total IgG raised against TpUB05 was able to block parasitic growth in vitro more effectively than that raised against UB05. However, there was no significant difference between the two study antigens in recalling peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) memory through IFN-γ production. This study suggests, for the first time, that TpUB05 from T. parva cross-reacts with UB05 from P. falciparum and is a marker of protective immunity in malaria. Hence, TpUB05 should be considered for possible development as a potential subunit vaccine candidate against malaria. View Full-Text
Keywords: Malaria vaccine development; UB05; TpUB05; marker of protective immunity; homologues; cross-species protective immunity Malaria vaccine development; UB05; TpUB05; marker of protective immunity; homologues; cross-species protective immunity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dinga, J.N.; Perimbie, S.N.; Gamua, S.D.; Chuma, F.N.G.; Njimoh, D.L.; Djikeng, A.; Pelle, R.; Titanji, V.P.K. Analysis of the Role of TpUB05 Antigen from Theileria parva in Immune Responses to Malaria in Humans Compared to Its Homologue in Plasmodium falciparum the UB05 Antigen. Pathogens 2020, 9, 271.

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