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Open AccessArticle

Preparation of Chicken Anemia Virus (CAV) Virus-Like Particles and Chicken Interleukin-12 for Vaccine Development Using a Baculovirus Expression System

1
Graduate Institute of Microbiology and Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
2
Animal Disease Diagnostic Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
3
Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2019, 8(4), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8040262
Received: 23 October 2019 / Revised: 13 November 2019 / Accepted: 20 November 2019 / Published: 23 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chicken Anaemia Virus Infection)
Chicken infectious anemia (CIA) is a poultry disease that causes huge economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Commercially available CIA vaccines are derived from wild-type chicken anemia viruses (CAVs) by serial passage in cells or chicken embryos. However, these vaccinal viruses are not completely attenuated; therefore, they can be transmitted vertically and horizontally, and may induce clinical symptoms in young birds. In this study, we sought to eliminate these issues by developing a subunit vaccine exploiting the CAV structural proteins, engineering recombinant baculovirus-infected Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells that contained both the viral protein 1 (VP1) and VP2 of CAV. Moreover, we produced single-chain chicken interleukin-12 (chIL-12) in the same system, to serve as an adjuvant. The recombinant VP1 was recognized by chicken anti-CAV polyclonal antibodies in Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays, and the bioactivity of the recombinant chIL-12 was confirmed by stimulating interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion in chicken splenocytes. Furthermore, the ability of the recombinant VP1 to generate self-assembling virus-like particles (VLPs) was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens inoculated with VLPs and co-administered the recombinant chIL-12 induced high CAV-specific antibodies and cell-mediated immunity. Taken together, the VLPs produced by the baculovirus expression system have the potential to be a safe and effective CIA vaccine. Finally, we demonstrated the utility of recombinant chIL-12 as an adjuvant for poultry vaccine development. View Full-Text
Keywords: chicken infectious anemia vaccine; chicken anemia virus; chicken IL-12; adjuvant; virus-like particle; vaccine development chicken infectious anemia vaccine; chicken anemia virus; chicken IL-12; adjuvant; virus-like particle; vaccine development
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Tseng, T.-Y.; Liu, Y.-C.; Hsu, Y.-C.; Chang, P.-C.; Hsieh, M.-K.; Shien, J.-H.; Ou, S.-C. Preparation of Chicken Anemia Virus (CAV) Virus-Like Particles and Chicken Interleukin-12 for Vaccine Development Using a Baculovirus Expression System. Pathogens 2019, 8, 262.

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