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Open AccessReview

Animal Models of Type III Secretion System-Mediated Pathogenesis

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2019, 8(4), 257;
Received: 17 October 2019 / Revised: 18 November 2019 / Accepted: 20 November 2019 / Published: 22 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Human Pathogens)
The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a conserved virulence factor used by many Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria and has become an important target for anti-virulence drugs. Most T3SS inhibitors to date have been discovered using in vitro screening assays. Pharmacokinetics and other important characteristics of pharmaceuticals cannot be determined with in vitro assays alone. In vivo assays are required to study pathogens in their natural environment and are an important step in the development of new drugs and vaccines. Animal models are also required to understand whether T3SS inhibition will enable the host to clear the infection. This review covers selected animal models (mouse, rat, guinea pig, rabbit, cat, dog, pig, cattle, primates, chicken, zebrafish, nematode, wax moth, flea, fly, and amoeba), where T3SS activity and infectivity have been studied in relation to specific pathogens (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Shigella spp., Bordetella spp., Vibrio spp., Chlamydia spp., and Yersinia spp.). These assays may be appropriate for those researching T3SS inhibition. View Full-Text
Keywords: type III secretion system; pathogenesis; virulence; animal models type III secretion system; pathogenesis; virulence; animal models
MDPI and ACS Style

Hotinger, J.A.; May, A.E. Animal Models of Type III Secretion System-Mediated Pathogenesis. Pathogens 2019, 8, 257.

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