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Open AccessArticle

In Vitro Activity of Sertraline, an Antidepressant, Against Antibiotic-Susceptible and Antibiotic-Resistant Helicobacter pylori Strains

1
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw 50-368, Poland
2
Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw 53-114, Poland
3
Department of Environment, Hygiene and Animal Welfare, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wroclaw 51-630, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2019, 8(4), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8040228
Received: 25 October 2019 / Revised: 2 November 2019 / Accepted: 8 November 2019 / Published: 10 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Vaccines and Therapeutic Developments)
Antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori, a spiral bacterium associated with gastric diseases, is a topic that has been intensively discussed in last decades. Recent discoveries indicate promising antimicrobial and antibiotic-potentiating properties of sertraline (SER), an antidepressant substance. The aim of the study, therefore, was to determine the antibacterial activity of SER in relation to antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant H. pylori strains. The antimicrobial tests were performed using a diffusion-disk method, microdilution method, and time-killing assay. The interaction between SER and antibiotics (amoxicillin, clarithromycin, tetracycline, and metronidazole) was determined by using a checkerboard method. In addition, the study was expanded to include observations by light, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy. The growth inhibition zones were in the range of 19–37 mm for discs impregnated with 2 mg of SER. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) counted for 2–8 µg/mL and 4–8 µg/mL, respectively. The time-killing assay showed the time-dependent and concentration-dependent bactericidal activity of SER. Bacteria exposed to MBCs (but not sub-MICs and MICs ≠ MBCs) underwent morphological transformation into coccoid forms. This mechanism, however, was not protective because these cells after a 24-h incubation had a several-fold reduced green/red fluorescence ratio compared to the control. Using the checkerboard assay, a synergistic/additive interaction of SER with all four antibiotics tested was demonstrated. These results indicate that SER may be a promising anti-H. pylori compound. View Full-Text
Keywords: coccoid forms; checkerboard assay; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor; time-killing assay coccoid forms; checkerboard assay; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor; time-killing assay
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MDPI and ACS Style

Krzyżek, P.; Franiczek, R.; Krzyżanowska, B.; Łaczmański, Ł.; Migdał, P.; Gościniak, G. In Vitro Activity of Sertraline, an Antidepressant, Against Antibiotic-Susceptible and Antibiotic-Resistant Helicobacter pylori Strains. Pathogens 2019, 8, 228.

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