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Open AccessArticle

Antibacterial Activity of Commercial Phytochemicals against Aeromonas Species Isolated from Fish

1
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, 14 Bolesława Prusa Str., 08-110 Siedlce, Poland
2
Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, 14 Bolesława Prusa Str., 08-110 Siedlce, Poland
3
Department of Fish Diseases, National Veterinary Research Institute, 57 Partyzantów Ave., 24-100 Puławy, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2019, 8(3), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8030142
Received: 7 August 2019 / Revised: 4 September 2019 / Accepted: 5 September 2019 / Published: 8 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Pathogens)
Antimicrobial activities of phytochemicals—trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), ferulic acid (FA), p-coumaric acid (p-CA), caffeic acid (CA), chlorogenic acid (CHA), Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TO), Eugenia caryophyllus essential oil (ECO), and Melaleuca alternifolia oil (TTO) against Aeromonas species—were assessed. Growth of all Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and almost all Aeromonas sobria strains was inhibited by TC at concentration 0.01 mg/mL, and for most Aeromonas hydrophila strains minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 0.01 to 0.19 mg/mL. The inhibitory effect of TC against A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida was comparable to the effect of oxytetracycline, and in the case of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and A. sobria was higher compared to gentamicin. MIC of FA, p-CA, and CA for most strains ranged from 1.56 to 3.12 mg/mL, and MIC values of TO for most strains ranged from 0.39 to 0.78 mg/mL. TO and TC at the concentrations below ½ MIC values used in mixtures exhibited strong synergism. ECO and TC showed synergy in mixture of ⅛ MIC of ECO and ¼ MIC of TC. TC and TO exhibited the strongest inhibitory and bactericidal effect against investigated Aeromonas species, and they are a promising alternative to the use of antibiotics in controlling the growth of these fish pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: phenolic acid; essential oils; trans-cinnamaldehyde; Aeromonas hydrophila; Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida; Aeromonas sobria phenolic acid; essential oils; trans-cinnamaldehyde; Aeromonas hydrophila; Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida; Aeromonas sobria
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Kot, B.; Kwiatek, K.; Janiuk, J.; Witeska, M.; Pękala-Safińska, A. Antibacterial Activity of Commercial Phytochemicals against Aeromonas Species Isolated from Fish. Pathogens 2019, 8, 142.

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