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Babesia microtiBorrelia burgdorferi Coinfection
Open AccessReview

Diagnostic Tools for the Identification of Babesia sp. in Persistently Infected Cattle

Babesia Unit, CENID-Salud Animal e Inocuidad, INIFAP, 62550 Jiutepec, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2019, 8(3), 143;
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 26 August 2019 / Accepted: 2 September 2019 / Published: 9 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Persistence in Babesia)
Bovine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle caused by the protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina and Babesia divergens are considered by International health authorities (OIE) as the principal species of Babesia that cause bovine babesiosis. Animals that recover from a babesial primo infection may remain as persistent carriers with no clinical signs of disease and can be the source of infection for ticks that are able to acquire Babesia parasites from infected cattle and to transmit Babesia parasites to susceptible cattle. Several procedures that have been developed for parasite detection and diagnosis of this infectious carrier state constitute the basis for this review: A brief description of the direct microscopic detection of Babesia-infected erytrocytes; PCR-based diagnostic assays, which are very sensitive particularly in detecting Babesia in carrier cattle; in-vitro culture methods, used to demonstrate presence of carrier infections of Babesia sp.; animal inoculation, particularly for B. divergens isolation are discussed. Alternatively, persistently infected animals can be tested for specific antibabesial antibodies by using indirect serological assays. Serological procedures are not necessarily consistent in identifying persistently infected animals and have the disadvantage of presenting with cross reactions between antibodies to Babesia sp. View Full-Text
Keywords: babesia; diagnosis; persistent infection babesia; diagnosis; persistent infection
MDPI and ACS Style

Alvarez, J.A.; Rojas, C.; Figueroa, J.V. Diagnostic Tools for the Identification of Babesia sp. in Persistently Infected Cattle. Pathogens 2019, 8, 143.

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