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Pathogens 2019, 8(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8010025

An Overview of the Most Significant Zoonotic Viral Pathogens Transmitted from Animal to Human in Saudi Arabia

1
Abdullah Bagshan for Dental and Oral Rehabilitation (DOR), Dental College Research Center, King Saud University, Riyadh 12372, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum 11111, Sudan
Received: 22 November 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Pathogens)
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Abstract

Currently, there has been an increasing socioeconomic impact of zoonotic pathogens transmitted from animals to humans worldwide. Recently, in the Arabian Peninsula, including in Saudi Arabia, epidemiological data indicated an actual increase in the number of emerging and/or reemerging cases of several viral zoonotic diseases. Data presented in this review are very relevant because Saudi Arabia is considered the largest country in the Peninsula. We believe that zoonotic pathogens in Saudi Arabia remain an important public health problem; however, more than 10 million Muslim pilgrims from around 184 Islamic countries arrive yearly at Makkah for the Hajj season and/or for the Umrah. Therefore, for health reasons, several countries recommend vaccinations for various zoonotic diseases among preventive protocols that should be complied with before traveling to Saudi Arabia. However, there is a shortage of epidemiological data focusing on the emerging and reemerging of zoonotic pathogens transmitted from animal to humans in different densely populated cities and/or localities in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, further efforts might be needed to control the increasing impacts of zoonotic viral disease. Also, there is a need for a high collaboration to enhance the detection and determination of the prevalence, diagnosis, control, and prevention as well as intervention and reduction in outbreaks of these diseases in Saudi Arabia, particularly those from other countries. Persons in the health field including physicians and veterinarians, pet owners, pet store owners, exporters, border guards, and people involved in businesses related to animal products have adopted various preventive strategies. Some of these measures might pave the way to highly successful prevention and control results on the different transmission routes of these viral zoonotic diseases from or to Saudi Arabia. Moreover, the prevention of these viral pathogens depends on socioeconomic impacts, available data, improved diagnosis, and highly effective therapeutics or prophylaxis. View Full-Text
Keywords: zoonosis; viral pathogens; Saudi Arabia; MERS-CoV; AHFV; Hajj and Umrah; animal; public health zoonosis; viral pathogens; Saudi Arabia; MERS-CoV; AHFV; Hajj and Umrah; animal; public health
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Al-Tayib, O.A. An Overview of the Most Significant Zoonotic Viral Pathogens Transmitted from Animal to Human in Saudi Arabia. Pathogens 2019, 8, 25.

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