Next Article in Journal
Factors Influencing Legionella Contamination of Domestic Household Showers
Previous Article in Journal
An Overview of the Most Significant Zoonotic Viral Pathogens Transmitted from Animal to Human in Saudi Arabia
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Pathogens 2019, 8(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8010026

Comparative Evaluation of the Immune Responses in Cattle Mammary Tissues Naturally Infected with Bovine Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 and Bovine Alphaherpesvirus-1

1
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Atatürk University, Yakutiye 25240, Erzurum, Turkey
2
Department of Genetics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Atatürk University, Yakutiye 25240, Erzurum, Turkey
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 January 2019 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 25 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Pathogens)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3767 KB, uploaded 25 February 2019]   |  

Abstract

Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV-3) and Bovine alphaherpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) lead to severe diseases in domesticated animals, such as Bovine, sheep, and goats. One of these diseases is mastitis, whose signs may not be observable in cases of viral infection due to the dominance of other clinical symptoms. This may lead to failure to predict viral agents in subclinical Bovine cases. Since viral infections have not been substantially investigated in mastitis studies, information about immune response to BPIV-3 and BoHV-1 infected Bovine mammary tissues may be inadequate. The present study aimed to determine the presence and prevalence of BPIV-3 and BoHV-1 agents in Bovine mammary tissues, and the immune response of such tissues against BPIV-3 and BoHV-1 infection. For this purpose, we first detected these viruses with qRT-PCR in mammary tissues. Then, we determined the expression profiles of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), CD4, and CD8 genes with qRT-PCR. Lastly, we performed immunohistochemistry staining to identify the presence of IFN-γ, CD4, and CD8 proteins in the mammary tissues. We found that 26, 16, and five of the 120 samples were BPI3-, BoHV1-, and BPIV-3 + BoHV-1 infected, respectively. Moreover, the gene expression levels of IFN-γ and CD4 were strongly up-regulated in the virus-infected tissues, whereas the CD8 gene expression level was only moderately up-regulated. Immunohistochemistry staining results were consistent with qRT-PCR results. Overall, our findings showed a high prevalence of BPIV-3 and BoHV-1 and indicated that cell-mediated immune response plays an important role against BPIV-3 and BoHV-1 infection in Bovine mammary tissues. Meanwhile, IFN-γ is an important cytokine for antiviral immunity against such infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV-3); Bovine alphaherpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1); IFN-γ; CD4; CD8; mastitis Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV-3); Bovine alphaherpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1); IFN-γ; CD4; CD8; mastitis
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

ÇOMAKLI, S.; ÖZDEMİR, S. Comparative Evaluation of the Immune Responses in Cattle Mammary Tissues Naturally Infected with Bovine Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 and Bovine Alphaherpesvirus-1. Pathogens 2019, 8, 26.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Pathogens EISSN 2076-0817 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top