An approach to manage seed-transmitted Fusarium crown-foot-root rot (FCR, Fusarium
spp.) and common root rot (CRR, Bipolaris sorokiniana
) on wheat, avoiding environmental risks of chemicals, is seed treatments with microbial metabolites. F. sambucinum
strain FS-94 that induces resistance to tomato wilt was shown by this study to be a source of non-fungitoxic wheat-protecting metabolites, which were contained in a mycelium extract purified by gel-chromatography and ultrafiltration. Plant-protecting effect of the purified mycelial extract (PME) was demonstrated in vegetation experiments using a rolled-towel assay and by small-plot field trials. To elucidate mechanisms putatively underlying PME protective activity, tests with cultured Triticum aestivum
and T. kiharae
cells, particularly the extracellular alkalinization assay, as well as gene expression analysis in germinated wheat seeds were used. Pre-inoculation treatments of seeds with PME significantly decreased the incidence (from 30 to 40%) and severity (from 37 to 50%) of root rots on seedlings without any inhibition of the seed germination and potentiation of deoxynivalenol (DON), DON monoacetylated derivatives and zearalenon production in FCR agents. In vegetation experiments, reductions in the DON production were observed with doses of 0.5 and 1 mg/mL of PME. Pre-sowing PME application on seeds of two spring wheat cultivars naturally infected with FCR and CRR provided the mitigation of both diseases under field conditions during four growing seasons (2013–2016). PME-induced ion exchange response in cultured wheat cells, their increased survivability, and up-regulated expression of some defensins’ genes in PME-exposed seedlings allow the suggestion of the plant-mediated character of disease-controlling effect observed in field.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited