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Article

Listeria monocytogenes Response to Propionate Is Differentially Modulated by Anaerobicity

Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2018, 7(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7030060
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 18 June 2018 / Accepted: 23 June 2018 / Published: 29 June 2018
Propionate is a common food preservative and one of the major fermentation acids in the intestines. Therefore, exposure to propionate is frequent for foodborne pathogens and likely takes place under suboxic conditions. However, it is not clear whether the absence of oxygen affects how pathogens respond to propionate. Here, we investigated how propionate exposure affects Listeria monocytogenes growth and virulence factor production under aerobic or anaerobic conditions and showed that oxygen indeed plays a key role in modulating L. monocytogenes response to propionate. Under aerobic conditions, propionate supplementations had no effect on planktonic growth but resulted in decreased adherent growth. Under anaerobic conditions, propionate supplementations resulted in a pH-dependent inhibition of planktonic growth and increased adherent growth. Cultures grown with propionate accumulated higher levels of acetoin under aerobic conditions but lower levels of ethanol under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Metabolic perturbations by propionate were also evident by the increase in straight chain fatty acids. Finally, propionate supplementations resulted in increased listeriolyin O (LLO) production under anaerobic conditions but decreased LLO production under aerobic conditions. These results demonstrate for the first time that the presence or absence of oxygen plays a critical role in shaping L. monocytogenes responses to propionate. View Full-Text
Keywords: short chain fatty acids; listeriolysin O; adherent growth; membrane fatty acid composition short chain fatty acids; listeriolysin O; adherent growth; membrane fatty acid composition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rinehart, E.; Newton, E.; Marasco, M.A.; Beemiller, K.; Zani, A.; Muratore, M.K.; Weis, J.; Steinbicker, N.; Wallace, N.; Sun, Y. Listeria monocytogenes Response to Propionate Is Differentially Modulated by Anaerobicity. Pathogens 2018, 7, 60. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7030060

AMA Style

Rinehart E, Newton E, Marasco MA, Beemiller K, Zani A, Muratore MK, Weis J, Steinbicker N, Wallace N, Sun Y. Listeria monocytogenes Response to Propionate Is Differentially Modulated by Anaerobicity. Pathogens. 2018; 7(3):60. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7030060

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rinehart, Erica, Eric Newton, Megan A. Marasco, Kaitlin Beemiller, Ashley Zani, Melani K. Muratore, John Weis, Nicole Steinbicker, Nathan Wallace, and Yvonne Sun. 2018. "Listeria monocytogenes Response to Propionate Is Differentially Modulated by Anaerobicity" Pathogens 7, no. 3: 60. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7030060

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